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HNRS 2000 Final exam Study Guide
Transcript of HNRS 2000 Final exam Study Guide
Identification: 4/12, 5 points each
Short Answer: 2/6, 15 points each
Essay: 2/6, 25 points each
Essay Prompt 1
What tensions in Europe led the great powers to form alliances in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? Describe the alliance system that emerged in the decades before the First World War.
Apart from the alliance system, what factors did Adam Hochschild identify as steepening “Europe’s plunge toward the abyss”?
"Plunge To Abyss"
a. Rival alliances
b. Pressure felt by all major powers to mobilize large forces
c. Advantage a country could get by mobilizing first
i. Field faster = prepare faster & gain territorial advantage
ii. If you invade the other country, you aren’t fighting on your own homeland
Besides murder of Archduke
Essay Prompt 2
2. Describe the role of each of the following nations in the diplomatic crisis in Europe in the summer of 1914: Serbia, Austria, Germany, Russia, Great Britain. Note at least three points at which war could have been avoided.
Part I: Identification
Otto Von Bismarck
HNRS 2000 Final exam Study Guide
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Erich Maria Remarque
Essay Prompt 3
Essay Prompt 4
Essay Prompt 5
Essay Prompt 6
1. How did the battles at Omdurman and Kimberley mislead strategists in planning for what would be the First World War in Europe?
2. What developments encouraged the United States to intervene in the Great War in Europe in 1917?
According to Wilbur Scott in the article entitled “PTSD in DSM-III: A Case in the Politics of Diagnosis and Disease” and Owen Scott in his lecture, what were the attitudes toward “shell shock” in World War I and “combat fatigue” in World War II among the following groups: (1) military and political leaders (2) medical professionals? What was the goal of treatment during this period?
What were the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? Why were the Germans furious that such a punitive peace had been forced on them?
5. How can the novel All Quiet on the Western Front be compared to the Homeric epic tradition?
6. Why did Robert Lansing, Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State, say that the phrase “national self-determination” is “loaded with dynamite”?
3. Explain the significance of three of the following World War I battles in terms of what was achieved and what was suffered. What were the goals of the offensive forces in each of the battles, and why did they fail to achieve those goals?
4. Why was gross stress reaction, a World War II era term, dropped from DSM-II in 1968 during the Vietnam War? Why did it take until 1980, well after the end of the Vietnam War, for PTSD to be recognized and defined as a unique disorder caused by severe psychological stress? What symptoms of the patients at Craiglockhart Hospital in the movie Regeneration could be identified as symptoms of PTSD? How do the treatments depicted in the movie compare to those used today for veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan?
5. In her lecture Professor Veldman identified the “New Woman” and the
as misconceptions about the First World War. What has been the traditional interpretation of those terms, and how did Professor Veldman challenge that interpretation?
6. Compare the portrayal of the character Paul Bäumer in the novel All Quiet on the Western Front with the portrayal of the same character in the film of the same title. Which portrayal do you think is more effective? Why? In both the novel and the film, how did Paul’s war experiences change him?
Considered the founder of the German Empire
greatest achievements, however, were the administrative reforms, developing a common currency, a central bank, and a single code of commercial and civil law for Germany
paramount position as mediator between the then great powers such as Russia, Austria, France, Great Britain. An alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879) marked a new period of conservatism in Bismarck's foreign policy.
Forced to resign when his policies under attack by 1890.
The Boer Wars was the name given to the South African Wars of 1880-1 and 1899-1902, that were fought between the British and the descendants of the Dutch settlers (Boers) in Africa.
The Boers, under the leadership of Paul Kruger, resented the colonial policy of Joseph Chamberlain and Alfred Milner which they feared would deprive the Transvaal of its independence. After receiving military equipment from Germany, the Boers had a series of successes on the borders of Cape Colony and Natal between October 1899 and January 1900.
The British action in South Africa was strongly opposed by many leading Liberal politicians and most of the Independent Labour Party as an example of the worst excesses of imperialism. The Boer War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging in May 1902.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a
t between the governments of the
United Kingdom and France, with the assent of Russia,
defining their proposed spheres of influence and control in the Middle East should the
Triple Entente succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
following the Russian Revolution of October 1917, the Bolsheviks exposed the agreement, "the British were embarrassed, the Arabs dismayed and the Turks delighted."
• Middle/lower class
• Artist—made posters
• Not really violent
• Woman’s rights
• Paid no attention to fashion and makeup: trivial
Ended up leaving her sisters after they supported the war because she did not believe in it
Otto Von Bismarck
created by General Count Alfred von Schlieffen in December 1905
operational plan for a designated attack on France once Russia, in response to international tension, had started to mobilise her forces near the German border. The execution of the Schlieffen Plan led to Britain declaring war on Germany on August 4th, 1914.
went through Belgium (neutral countries)
Schlieffen concluded that a massive and successful surprise attack against France would be enough to put off Britain becoming involved in a continental war. This would allow Germany time (the six weeks that Schlieffen had built into his plan) to transfer soldiers who had been fighting in the successful French campaign to Russia to take on the Russians.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I.
The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk after two months of negotiations.
The treaty was forced on the Bolshevik government by the threat of further advances by German and Austrian forces.
According to the treaty, Soviet Russia defaulted on all of Imperial Russia's commitments to the Triple Entente alliance.
Erich Maria Remarque
Wilson's foreign policy was noted for its idealistic humanitarianism; his Fourteen Points—a statement of national objectives that envisioned a new international order after World War I--failed.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS
President before & during WWI
Though he pledged to keep America out of World War I, Wilson was obliged to declare war on Germany after the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917.
Wilson became the first American president to leave the country during his administration when he sailed for Paris to negotiate the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
o Upper class
o End the war
o Women with connections
• Come from prosperous backgrounds
• Don’t have to do anything—choose to live this life
Author of All Quiet on Western Front
First hand count of war during WWI
Wasn't trying to write against war
Leading poet during WWI
Stood in complete contrast to previous concepts of war
Had to stay in mental facility because messed up
Went back to war
died in war
Believes that war is good in all sense of the word
Opposite of John French
Battle of Ypre
Image of war to British people
Battles were against natives
People with no military background
gunned down, not strong
Killed them with ease
Thought that people were going to be like this
didn't want to use machine guns
Sinking of Lusitania (ship with civilians on it)
Submarine warfare by Germany
Sunk American ships
Even though they were helping??
Offered to liberate Mexico if they joined Germany's side
Overall attitude was, especially during World War I, that it did not exist
People were imprisoned and charged because they had shell shock and could not walk during WWI by military leaders
Many people thought it was cowardice
Medical professionals & leaders wanted to heal them just to get back on the field
Not really "healed" since mental problems; just wanted to "fix" them so they could go fight again
Included 14 points (League of Nations)
Did not pacify nor weaken Germany, just mae them angry
Made WWI totally blamed on Germany Disarmed Germany
Made Germany lose a lot of land
Made Germany repay money
He centers on the battlefield, beginning
in medias res,
or in the middle of things, moving back to the classroom and forward to the bitter end of Paul and his friends.
comparing events of war with scenes fromnature, as with Paul's absorption in the coming of autumn, the rustling of poplar leaves, and "the canteens [which] hum like beehives with rumours of peace."
the Greek concept of excessive pride, as seen in Himmelstoss' enjoyment of his power over young recruits and Kantorek's strutting chauvinism.
He extends his canvas over a vast setting — the Western Front, which is described as a five-hundred-mile human wall pitted against the Allied assault.
He celebrates male bonding, just as the Iliad emphasizes Achilles' love for Patroclus, whose death overpowers his control of emotions.
He focuses on blind chance, over which humans have no power.
He maintains an objectivity toward the slaughter of a war, the proportions of which involve a long list of nations that mirror the suffering experienced by all soldiers — German or otherwise, even enemies.
"Self Determination"-someone governing itself/making its own alliances
President never really says what he means by this--a race? country? community?
Puts false hope into the people
Shakes peace: can mean an entire nation or people
What are the limitations?
Tensions to cause alliances:
Germany building military strength: lethal
Terretorial--didn't want to be taken over by anyone
Economic rivalries between countries (wanted to be the best)
Extreme nationalism in countries (ex. British)
New Imperialism: fights with terretories in Africa & China
Alliance system that developed:
Belgium & France (Neutrality)
Britain, & Czarist Russia (against Germany)
Austrio-Hungarian & Albania with Germany against Russia
Serbs & Turks against British with Germany (didn't want to be taken over--culturally same)
Gavrilo Princip killed Ferdinands
Serbs did not like the Austrians
Beckoned for Russia's help in liberation
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Alliance with Germany; if Vienna was attacked (which, Ferdinands were killed) then Germany would go tow ar for them
Tsar Nicholas II
Close knit with Germany and axis powers
War was forced on him to help Serbs even though close with Germans
Alliance with Austria to help them in case ever in trouble
Huge war power: wanted to acquire more land
was in alliance with France and Belgium to fight against the Germans if ever needed to
Decided to go to war because voided the neutrality of Belgium when Germans wanted to go to France
Also in alliance with Russians, who were in alliance with Serbs
How War Could've Been Avoided:
Russians not mobilize to Austria-Hungary
Would not have triggered Germany
Leaders would have advised Austria Hungary & Serbia in a different way
Austria-Hungary would have accepted Serbian's compliance with 8/10 points
If Germany would not have gone through Belgium
If British would've acted sooner instead of watching from a distance & then joining
Goals: tried to disrupt Ottoman empire's shipping to Germans
didn't allow allied forces through
Tried to land on straits
Significance: failed miserably; first acual battle
Achieved: nothing; tried to minesweep & failed
Why did they fail: poor planning, poor execution from officers; did get past the outer forts but nothing more
Suffered: Lost a lot of time and ammunition; nothing was accomplished
were to make a “big push” towards the German defenses
i. Overwhelm the Germans with artillery & soldiers
ii. Would preattack and destroy everything beforehand
b. Captured German trenches
c. Got there, barbed wire was still there
i. Germans could shoot at them and kill them and not worry about being killed
d. British lost half of the men who were there
e. Haig did not see any problem or any casualties as a bad thing
f. Made British soldiers question why they were in the war
Consequences: almost one million lives lost
loss of a lot of resources
Sig: Between Germany & France
Longest battle in WWI
Primary reason for the battle of Somme
Demonstrated massive blood shed
France "won" but did they really?
Goals: Germans offensive attack: wanted to "bleed France white"
Failed because: Germans had no more men or resources
many lives lost
sometimes called "Battle of the mud"
Douglas Haig's attempt to break through
: most rain in history; disgusting, slop, quick sand; battle lasted for a while; use of mustard gas
: to break through Germans & get rid of some; thought German morale was low & easier
: very very minimal land; gain of one village; Haig considered this a "victory"; improved morale a little
: almost 700,000 men lost lives
: incorrectly thought Germans were not prepared; mustard gas
Gross stress reaction dropped
knew it wasn't just a simple stress reaction duringwar
lasted way longer after war
saw that men were having extremely traumatic experiences
Why did it take so long to recognize PTSD?
used to not recognize mental illnesses as a thing
men were unwilling to admit they were messed up
awareness of people
more severe reactions because of more severe weapons
unable to speak/bad motor skills
Treatments in movie v. today?
Movie: tried to use shock/"torture" to get them to be better simply for war
Good hospital: used more mental talking it out, medications, tried to look at the brain, still only looking to fix short term, not really healed
Today: therapy, different sessions; looking to fix long term & not sending back to
Traditional Interpretation of "New Woman"
Unprecedented mobilization of women
Gender roles change
Liberated stance for women
Women would have been working anyways
Had low pay
Men desired normalcy
Women's suffrage was already into pla
Traditional Interpretation of "Scorched Generation"
Messed up; taken childhood
Considered war heroes
Much worse than it was thought
Very racist: didn't like foreigners
Didn't like the government
In beginning, gentle and passionate; compassionate
loves to write poetry, thoughtful
completely contrasts war
Not even an adult yet
War makes him into a beast, animal
Instincts only, room for nothing else
Unable to mourn for anyone or feel any emotions
Completely different person, no longer thoughtful; insane
Book is more affective
same concept; not as realistic because not inside his head
Not as focused on him as the book; kind of puts him in group with all other guys
Gentle - animal still prevalent
Not as big of a deal