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The Kingdoms

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Lindsay Tanner

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of The Kingdoms

Kingdom Archaebacteria
Cell Type:
Prokaryotes
Number of Cells:
Unicellular
Mode of Nutrition:
Autotroph/Heterotroph
Eubacteria
Protista
Fungi
The Kingdoms

Lindsay Tanner
Methanogens
Halophiles
Three Species
Metabolism
Methanogens are chemoautotrophs. Basically, this means that they use hydrogen as a source of electrons which reduces Carbon Dioxide to usable food (Methane is given off in the process).
Some of these organisms rely on the fermentation or catabolization of acetate to gain energy. This is done through the use of enzymes to catalyze the reaction (CO2 is also a byproduct).
Lastly, methanogens decompose animal waste to produce methane.
Excretion of Waste
Methanogens release waste through diffusion, and they release a certain gas. This gas is what is known as Methane, hence, their name.
However, this methane waste is quite useful. Curently, methane can be used to make ecological friendly electricity
Reproduction
Growth and Development
Methanogens grow and develop in anaerobic environments. These areas may included the muck of swamps and marshes, the rumen of cows, human colons, sewage sludge, and the guts of termites. In cows, they develop and feed on the hydrogen and CO2 produced by neighboring microbes.
Methanogens use this Carbon Dioxide in their environment in order to grow larger and expand
Methanogens reproduce asexually through binary fission. Binary fission is the process of which a single DNA molecule replicates thus causing two identical cells are made from the original cell.
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii
Methanothermobacter
thermoautotrophicus
Methanogenium cariaci
Metabolism
Similar to plants Hallophiles use the light from the sun for photosynthetic energy
With that being said, Halophiles make their own food
Can be aerobic or anaerobic (anaerobic halophiles can be phototrophic, fermentative, sulfate reducing , homoactogenic, and methanogenic)
Excretion of Waste
Excrete waste through diffusion or active transportation
Waste is removed through a selectively permeable cell membrane
Halophiles are recognized for their ability to iodize sulfur and iron autotropical to create energy which creates the waste products of sulfuric acid and iron oxide
Reproduction
Cells reproduce through binary fission
Binary fission is where DNA replicates itself causing two DNA molecules to head towards the opposite ends of the cell (chromosome segregation).
After this process, the cell then splits into two daughter cells during cytokinesis.
Growth and Development
Require NaCl to grow, therefore, Halophiles live in extremely salty environments
In order to grow, Halophiles adapt to their environment by converting light into ATP through the use of a retinal pigment which joins a protien eventually creating a light absorbent molecule called microbial rhodopsin
Three Species
Halococcus salifodinae
Halopelagius inordinatus
Halobacterium
salinarum
Phylum
Chlamydiae
Metabolism
Excretion of Waste
Reproduction
Three Species
Growth & Development
Metabolism
Excretion of Waste
Cyanobacteria is the only known bacteria which produces O2 as a waste during the process of photosynthesis
Waste contributes to the air we breathe
Some Cyanobacteria convert Nitrogen into Nitrate or Ammonia
Reproduction
Reproduce asexually through the process of fission
The bacterial chromosome of Cyanobacteria is what is known as a "genophose"
This genophose physically attaches to the plasma membrane and replicates itself. Then, cell division occurs and the single cell is separated into two identical cells
no meiosis or fertilization in Cyanobacteria reproduction
Growth & Development
Cyanobacterium form motile filaments of cells, which are called "homogonia"
The homogonia move away from the main biomass in order to bud and create new colonies in other places.
In order to break from the original colony, hormogonium usually break down a weaker cell in a necridium
These filamentous colonies differentiate into various types of cells. This includes vegatative, normal, and photosynthetic cells
They grow and develop in a broad range of habitats ( freshwater, marine or terrestrial ecosystems, and extreme niches)
Three Species
Ciliophora
Zoomastigina
Metabolism
Ciliophora are heterotrophic with multiple modes of feeding. For example. some feed on bacteria, algea, other ciliophora, or even detritus.
They have microscopic hairs, called "cilia" which allow them to obtain food. Some species have these cilia fused into sheets, which actually allow them to sweep up food
H20 is forced into the gullet, which forms food vacuoles
Excretion of Waste
Ciliophora excrete waste through a specific part of the cell; what is known as an "anal pore"
Additionally, extra water is removed through the use of the cell's contractive vacuole, which physically pushes out the unnecessary water
Reproduction
Can reproduce asexually or sexually, however, the most common form of reproduction is asexually through fission
During sexual reproduction, genetic exchange occurs due to the exchange of the micronuclie
After congujation, or when the micronuclie are in fact swapped, the ciliophora divides and four identical organisms are created
Growth & Development
Ciliophora grow almost entirely in freshwater
In order to move, the cilia hairs of the cell are used
To aid in their survival, Ciliophora form relationships with bacteria to help create resiliency against negative outside forces
The genetic code of ciliophora has developed from the universal genetic code
Three Species
Paramecium caudatum
Metabolism
Non-photosythetic metabolism
Some are free-living (generally in bodies of water)
Some are symbiont (eg. Zooflagates live inside the guts of termites and actually digest the cellulose in the wood which the termites originally consumed)
Can be parasitic as well (get energy by feeding on blood or other nutrients from the host's prey within the host organism)
Membrane of Zooflagates absorb food directly which is ultimately processed in food vacuoles
Only have one mitochondria
Excretion of Waste
Zooflagates get rid of waste by removing excess products through a process called "exocytosis"
Exocytosis occurs in the organim's anal pore. This anal pore is the actual location of which the waste products are excreted
Reproduction
Zooflagates reproduce asexaully through what is known as binary fission
However, they can reproduce sexually by creating gametes (a type of sex cell) through the process of meiosis
Growth & Development
Parasitic Zooflagates grow and develop within other organisms
Free-living Zooflagates thrive in ponds and streams; they feed off of dead/decaying matter
Zooflagates contain protozoa which are mobile in addition to the organism's flagella. Flagella is a long whip-like projection that is similar to cilia, and allows the organism to move.
Three Species
Trypanosoma gambienese
Chytidiomycota
Zygomycota
Metabolism
Excretion of Waste
Reproduction
Three Species
Growth & Development
Metabolism
Zygomycota feed on dead or dying plant and animal matter
Decompose food sources, similarly to Chytidiomycota
Excess sugar taken in is stored as polysaccharide glycogen (animals store the same chemical)
Excretion of Waste
While digestion energy sources, Zygomycota release acids followed by digestive enzymes (break down food source)
These organisms also decompose what they consume. Matter that is being taken in for energy is decomposed by the fungi, thus, resulting in the formation of a more simple end product which is released as a waste product
Reproduction
Can reproduce sexually or asexually
Asexual reproduction is allowed through the use of spores. These spores are produced in the sporangia
Sexual reproduction deals with the fusion of haploid mating hypae which produces diploid zygospore. The zygospore forms sporangia in the location where meiosis takes place.
Growth & Development
Zygomycota can grow and develop on fruit, soil, and even dung
They grow as either mycellia or as filaments of long, thin cells
Terrestrial (live on land)
If bread is left out, it can be infected by Zygospores due to the characteristics of bread that make it a suitable environment
Play a major role in the carbon cycle
Three Species
Rhizopus stotonifer
Plantae
Bryophyta
Hepaticophyta
Anthecerophyta
Pterophyta
Ginkgophyta
Coniferophyta
Anthophyta
Lycophyta
Metabolism:
Has chlorophyll and chloroplasts that are responsible for photosynthesis. Nutrients from the ground as also absorbed with plant's "tracheid"
Excretion of Waste:
Oxygen is released through photosynthesis. The gas passes out of the stomata in te same way that Carbon Dioxide enters.
Reproduction:
Sexual Reproduction occurs in water; have sporophyte stage;lack seeds
Growth & Development:
vascular, but lack vascular leaves, xylem and phloem are present through roots,stems, and leaves; have a spore forming structure called strobili
Three Species:
Metabolism
Organisms in phylum "Bryophyta" have upright, branching rows of photosynthetic cells.
They convert light into usable energy through the process of photosynthesis
Excretion of Waste
Get rid of excess gasses produced by photosynthesis and cellular respiration through process called "diffusion"
Can store waste in vacuoles within cell
Reproduction
Have photosynthetic gametophytes
Also have sporophytes- sporophytes are attached to the gametophytes and depend on them for nutrition and energy
Require water to reproduce sexually due to the fact Bryophytes originated from aquatic environments (reproduce asexually as well)
Growth & Development
Live in a diversity of environments; some live in deserts!
Conducting cells other than "tracheids" are used for water obtainment
Sometimes are non-vascular, however, most Bryophytes are in fact vascular
Three Species
Cell Type:
Prokaryote
Number of Cells:
Unicellular
Mode of Nutrition:
Autotroph or Heterotroph

Phylum Spirochaetes
All organisms in the
Spirochaeta
genus ferment carbohydrates with carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol, and H2, which are the major end products
Also, many amino acids are fermented by these organisms
Some species use the "Embden-Meyerhof Pathway as well as glucose catabolization with formation of pyruvate.
Capable of using D-glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, and starch which ultimately create waste products.
These products are H2, acetate, ethanol, and formate, which are released into the environment in which the microorganism thrives
Reproduces via binary fission
This is where the cytoplasm divides transversely into two sets of nuclei, forming two dissimilar individuals
These microorganisms live in a variety of aquatic environments. This includes water, sediments, and the mud of ponds, lakes, marshes, rives, and even oceans!
They compete with other organisms for nutrients; exhibit various types of mobility behaviors
Have a helical shape, which allows them to move on surfaces similar to gliding bacteria and environements with high viscocities
Spirocheta halophila
Spirochaeta zuelzerae
Spirochaeta pallida
Perform phtosynthesis through the use of photosystems
Certain pigments ( Phycocyanin and Chlorophyll) are embeddeed causing a blue-green color in the bacteria
Use water as electron donor And produce oxygen as a by-product, though some of these organisms use hydrogen sulfide
CO2 is reduced to form carbohydrates within the Calvin Cycle
Microcystis aerunginosa
Cyanbacterium spirulina
Cyanophyceae Merismopedia
Cell Type:
Eukaryote
Number of Cells:
Most unicellular, some multicellular
Mode of Nutrition:
autotroph or heterotroph
Paramecium vorticella
Paramecium stentor
Leishmania donovani
Salpingoeca fusiformis
Cell Type:
Eukaryotic
Number of Cells:
Almost entirely Multicellular, very few unicellular
Mode of Nutrition:
Heterotroph
Chytidiomycota feed on living and dead organisms, thus, they are heterotrophic
In addition, these particular organisms digest energy sources internally, then, that energy is absorbed into individual cells
Digestive enzymes are used to break down food sources
Chytidiomycota first consumer living or dead organisms, then digest this matter. However, as this matter is being digested it is also being decomposed into organic matter. Decomposition is the process by which the original food source is broken down into simpler matter.
Organic acid is also excreted by these organisms, which can potentially be dangerous to the environment
Chytidiomycota can produce sexually or asexually
Sexual reproduction is haploid dominant and depends on the isomorphic alteration of genetics. Furthermore, they have flagellated gametes (type of sex cell that can swim).
Asexual reproduction deals with the use of zoospores. During the process of asexual reproduction, a zoospore will swim until a desirable substrate is found, bind itself to it, and feed on a host cell. After this, the cytoplasm will grow and meiotic division will occur. Then, the cell wall around the original protoplasm will increase as the cell develops. Lastly, the cleavage of the protoplasm producing individual zoospores will be released through a tiny pore.
Chytidiomycota are mostly aquatic organisms and not terrestrial. With that being said, they are dependent on the presence of H20 to develop and grow
Chitin strengthens the cell wall of Chytidiomycota, and some have cellulose additionally.
Some live as parasites on plants while others may grow on dipterrans
Th Chytidiomycota emerged after the Precambian period, therefore, they are ancestors to all fungi species.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Spizellomyces punctatus
Rhizophydium sphaerotheca
Cunninghamella echinulata
Syncephalastrum racemosum
Cell Type:
Eukaryote
Number of Cells:
Multicellular
Mode of Nutrition:
Autotroph (Phototrophs)
Metabolism
Photosynthetic plants
Nutrients are obtained by outside moisture
Able to obtain nutrients through rhizoids
Excretion of Waste
O2 is excreted from photosynthesis process/ cellular respiration
Reproduction
Sexual reproduction- includes erect gameotypes and one celled rhizoids
Asexual reproduction- happens when lens shaped pieces of tissue are released form the gameotophyte to grow and create new ones
Growth & Development
Lack stomata (making them the oldest lineage of plants)
Can thrive on trees, moisture-high soils, and even on water
3 Species
Metabolism
Nutrients are gained through the process of photosynthesis
Usually will have one, large chloroplast (necessary factor in photosynthesis)
Most sporophytes are photosynthetic
Oxygen is released into the air through photosynthesis
C02 is taken in through photosynthesis
Reproduction
Generally reproduce asexually, however, some reproduce sexually
Growth & Development
Stomata provides the sporophyte of antheceophytes with energy needed to survive and develop
Moisture in environment is necessary for organism to survive
Three Species
Excretion of Waste
Metabolism
Photosynthesis is used in order to obtain energy
Photosynthesis is the process by which sugars are produced from sunlight. Cellular respiration converts these sugars into ATP.
Equation: 6CH20 + 6C02 ------> C6H1206 + 602
Excretion of Waste
O2 is released into our environment through the process of photosynthesis
This excretion of Oxygen allows us to breathe!
Reproduction
From the spore, the bisexual gametophyte genetics develop
Fern gameotophyle has both sexes present ( called prothallium)
Prothallium develops from spores that are shed on the underside of the plant
Sexual Reproduction occurs, water is required to reproduce
Growth & Development
Found in the tropics and temperate regions
Live in damp, shady areas
Roots grow underground and are permanent (called rhizomes)
Form symbiotic relationships with Fungi
3 Species
Metabolism
Energy is gained through photosynthesis and cellular respiration
In photosynthesis, Carbon Dioxide is converted into sugars by the energy of the sun
These sugars are then transformed into ATP from the process of cellular respiration
Excretion of Waste
Oxygen is released through photosynthesis
This oxygen allows us to breathe
Carbon Dioxide is an outside gas taken in in order to produce the O2
Reproduction
Sperm have flagella (similar to cycads)
"Dioecious" - male and female reproductive structures are on different trees
Reproduce sexually
Growth & Development
Deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves and evenly forking veins
Resistant to airpollution, which allows them to thrive in cities
3 Species
Metabolism
Energy from the sun allows for the process of photosynthesis.
In photosynthesis, Carbon Dioxide is transformed into sugars. These sugars are made into ATP through cellular respiration.
Excretion of Waste
Oxygen is released through the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Oxygen is vital for other organisms such as humans and any other animal that needs Oxygen to survive
Although not technically a waste, leaves secrete resin in order to deter fungal and insect attacks
Reproduction
Reproduce sexually---> Male gametophytes develop from microspores and females are produced on upper brances of the same tree that produces the male cones
Heterosporous seed plants (seeds in cones)
Sperm is not motile and gets to egg through a pollen tube
Growth and Development
Develop into needle/scale-like structures
Live in cold temperate or dry regions
Have tough-needle like leaves that develop in clusters
3 Species
Metabolism
Photosynthesis takes place
In photosynthesis, sunlight allows Carbon dioxide to be transformed into energy (sugars) which ultimately become ATP through the process of cellular respiration
Excretion of Waste
These organisms release Oxygen as a biproduct of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
If this waste was not excreted, we would not be able to breathe
Have nectar-secreting glands as well (nectaries) that contain sugars, amino acids, ect which attract insects and birds.
Reproduction
To reproduce, pollinators are attracted to the organisms or wind carries pollen
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from its source, called the anther, to the receptive area, or stigma
Fertilization sometimes occurs
Reproduction is sexual
Growth & Development
Flower parts are attatched in circles (called whorls, which are composed of sepals. Sepals are the first whorl). The second whorl is made of petals, the third is made of stamens (male gametophytes) and the center is the gynoecium, or female gametophytes.
Seeds remain dormant for years, then undergo the process of germination which allows the sporophyte to grow and emergy
3 Species
Amborella trichopoda
Cycadophyta
Metabolism:
Process of photosynthesis takes place in order to transform light and Carbon Dioxide into usuable energy ( in the form of sugars)
Excretion of Waste:
Due to photosynthesis, Oxygen waste is released into the air, allowing humans and other organisms to breathe
Reproduction:
Organisms are heterosporous (seeds inside cones) and have flagellated sperm that are motile but confined to a pollen tube. In sexual reproduction, organisms undergo mitosis and cytokinesis.
Growth & Development:
Secondary growth is slow when compared to that of other conifers. Sometimes form green mats around ponds (evolution supports that one species must have inched its way on land through adaptation to drying)
Three Species:
Animalia
Porifera
Metabolism & Digestion:
Generally gain their energy from filter feeding on food sources in the water that they are living in. Porifera have internal cavities that are lined with food-filtering, flagellated cells called choanocyes. Incomplete digestive tract
Excretion of Waste:
Pores are used to release any waste into surrounding environment. Pores have a meshwork of cells surrounding the channels which open to the outside
Reproduction:
asexual - process of fragmentation ; sexual- sperm is released into the water
Growth & Development:
Live in salt-water environments (generally marine species)
Symmetry:
Multiple forms of symmetry
Tissue Layers:
No tissue layers, just pores
Circulation and transport:
Sponge pores are used to transport food sources and other things. Porifera lack tissues and organs!
Proto/Deuto:
N/A
Coelem:
absent
Gas exchange:
Water is absorbed from surrounding environment through pores, and Oxygen is obtained from H2O
3 species:
Cnidaria
Metabolism/Digestion:
Consume other organisms (some cnidaria are poisonous), absorb organic matter, symbiotic relatships, ect; incomplete system
Excretion of Waste:
Unconsumed/Undigestable material is removed out through mouth; some can excrete an exoskeleton
Reproduction:
both asexually and sexually
Growth:
Develop to have specific "nerve networks" and tentacles armed with stinging capsules, however, has no organs, generally live in marine environments, but a few rare species live in fresh water
Symmetry:
Radial
Tissue Layers: 2 layers of tissue
Circulation and Transport:
Digestive and circulative systems are fused together
Proto/Deuto:
N/A
Coelem:
has acoloemate body
Gas Exchange:
Oxygen is obtained through water and Carbon dioxide is released back into enviornment
3 Species:
Platyhelminthes
Metabolism/Digestion:
Parasitic (feed off of other organisms); incomplete digestive tract
Excretion:
Entire digestive system runs throughout organism body and excess waste products are removed through mouth; through network of small tubules waste is released
Reproduction:
Platyhelminthes reproduce sexually meaning a male and female must be present in order to reproduce
Growth:
Develop and grow within the bodies of other animals (some flatworms thrive off of other organism's blood)
Symmetry:
Bilateral
Tissue layers:
Three
Circulation and transportation: N/A
Proto/Deuto:
Protosome
Coelem: Absent
Gas Exchange:
Circulatory system is not present, therefore, gasses are exchanged through the process of diffusion
3 Species
Nematoda
Metabolism and digestion:
generally feed on plants (such as grass) but, lack a stomach (enzymes break down food); complete disgestive system
Excretion:
Ammonia is excreted through anus
Reproduction:
Sexual Reproduction occurs (females have ovaries and males have sperm
Growth:
Parasitic organisms (live inside the bodies of other organisms) therefore, can live in a variety of environments
Symmetry:
Bilaterally
Tissue Layers
:3
Circulatory/Trans:
Lacks many organs but has two specific nerves which work to transmit signals
Proto/Deuto:
protosome
Coelem:
not present
Gas Exchange:
lacks a respiratory system, therefore, gas exchange does not occur
3 Species:
Annelida
Metabolism and Digestion:
Generally consume soil for energy ( absorbes soil for animal/plant parts and excretes excess soil); complete system
Excretion:
nephrididum allows for the excretion of waste; waste usually contains ammonia which is expelled into the surrounding environment (helps keep soil nice!)
Reproduction:
Sexually ocassionally asexually
Growth:
Live in a variety of environments (aquatic and on land)
Symmetry:
bilateral
Tissue Layers:
3
Circulatory/ transport
: annelids have blood, however, breath through diffusion bc no respiratory system; closed circulatory system
Proto/Deuto:
protosome
Coelem:
present
Gas Exchange:
due to no respiration, oxygen is obtained through diffusion
3 Species:
Mollusca
Metabolism and digestion:
cilia move mucus and food in organisms mouth to stomach; have a siphon system;consumers; complete system
Excretion:
consumed food travels through intestine and exits through anus (wastes are nitrogenous) A typical nephridium has an open funnel, the nephrostome, which is also lined with cilia
Reproduction:
sexual; some engage in cross ferilization
Growth:
in mollusks, the brain is far more developed than many other organisms
Symmetry:
bilateral
Tissues:
three
Circ/trans:
breathing is made possible through presence of gills
proto/deuto:
protosome
Coelem:
present
Gas Exchange:
have gills that allow for gas exchange
Arthropoda
Metabolism and Digestion: arthoropods are scavengers (this means that they filter feed) and sometimes feed on vegetation or other organisms, complete
Excretion: nephridia is responsible for the removal of waste (excreted as a liquid)
Reproduction: sexual
Growth & Development: begin as eggs and grow and develop larger; segmented body with exoskeleton
Symmetry: bilateral
Tissues:3
Circulatory/Trans: blood exists in organisms heart and arteries
Proto/Deuto:protosome
Coelem: present
Gas Exchange: can have gills or lungs dependent on where species thrives
Three Species:
Echinodermata
Metabolism/digestion: range from eating vegatation to eating other organisms, complete system
Excretion: waste is removed through diffusion (ammonia gas is released into the air)
Reproduction: sexually, however, some species reproduce asexually
Growth: grow and develop an internal skeleton, also can secrete poisons to fend off predators
Symmetry:bilateral
Tissues: 3 layers of tissues
Circulatory/trans:
Coelem: present
Proto/deuto: deutorosome
Gas exchange: gills allow for the exchanging of gasses ( take in oxygen release carbon dioxide
3 species:
Chordata
Metabolism: consume other organisms (vegetation or animals); complete system
Excretion: through the process of diffusion
Reproduction: generally sexually
Growth: have a specialized dorsal nerve
Symmetry:bilateral
Tissue Layers:3
Circulatory/transport: have blood and respiratory system
Proto/Deuto:deutorosome
Coelem:present
Gas exchange: oxygen is taken in and released as carbon dioxide
3 species:
Cell Type:
Eukaryote
Number of Cells:
Multicellular
Mode of Nutrition:
Heterotroph
Phaeoceros carolinianus
Lunularia cruciata
Plagiomnium insigni
Lunularia cruciata
Jungermannia sphaerocarpa
Anthelia julacea
Alethopteris lonchitica
Bowenia serrulata
Bowenia spectabilis
Anthocerotaceae agrestic
Diploterygium pinnatum
Dicranopteris linearis
Phymatosorus scolopendria
Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo cranei
Ginkgo huolinhensis
Sequoia sempervirens
Pinus strobus
Pinus virginiana
Antheceros caucasicus
Antheceros fusiformis
Nymphaeaceae alba
Illicium verun
Lycopodium venustulum
Selaginella lepidophyla
Lycopodium obscurum
Neoesperiopsis rigida
Agelas clathrodes
Callyspongia plicifera
Metabolism: Mouth opens into a single digestive sac and is surrounded by tenacles armed with stinging capsules called nematocysts; capture prey for food source; cells enlining cavity allow food to be engulfed
Excretion of waste: Some can secrete an exoskeleton; single opening in which digestion, gas exchange, and excretion occur (gastrovascular space)
Reproduction: Two different sexes, and an egg and a sperm unite to form a zygote, which develops into a planktic ciliated planula larva that becomes a polp.
Growth and Development: Most are marine, however, some thrive in freshwater environments; have no reproductive, circulatory, digestive, or excretory systems
Symmetry: radial
Tissues:2 (epidermis, gastrodermis)
Circulatory/trans:
Proto/Deuto:N/A
Coelem: absent
Gas Exchange: Exchange oxygen for respiration
Three Species:
Tubstraea aurea
Cribinopsis fernaldi
Chironex fleckeri
Clonorchis sinensis
Taenia saginata
Spirostomum minus
Caenorhabditis elegans
Enterobius vermiclaris
Wuchereria bancrofti
Nereis virens
Oenone fulgida
Riftia pachyptila
Allogona townsendiana
Eudoxochiton nobilis
Octopus vulgaris
Latrodectus hesperus
Loxosceles reclusa
Latrodectus mactans
Oreaster occidentalis
Parastichopus parvimensis
Ophioderma ensiferum
Halocynthia auranthium
Branchiostoma lanceolatum
Butoride virescens
Bibliography
* Citations on separate sheet of paper (:
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