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The Cold War

World History
by

Patrick Floyd

on 19 May 2017

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Transcript of The Cold War

An August
military coup
, a sudden government takeover by force, by Communist Hardliners failed due to lack of support
Soviet Republics began declaring their independence. First the
Baltic States
, then Russia, Belarus, and the
Ukraine
which formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
The Soviet Union
dissolved
and Gorbachev resigned in 1991.
Boris Yeltsin
becomes President of Russia
Ronald Reagan
Soviet
missiles
discovered in Cuba
Cuba is
90 miles
off the coast of Florida
Beginning of
13 Day
Cuban Missile Crisis
Closest ever coming to Nuclear War
Kennedy vs. Khrushchev
President Kennedy Blocks Cuba with Ships (“eye to eye and the other guy blinked”)
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
An attempted overthrow of Fidel Castro’s Communism
U.S. placed an
embargo
on Cuba
Trained and supported a group of 1400 Cuban exiles
1961—
Bay of Pigs
Invasion failed
American Air support does not appear and the exiles were captured
Kennedy
takes full responsibility for the disaster
U.S. actively aids against

Ho Chi Minh
and Communists
French
defeat at Dien Bien Phu
Vietnam 1954
Truman Fires MacArthur
38th Parallel
This is the first
proxy war
between the superpowers
Communist North Korea Invades South Korea
UN and West aid South Korea while Soviet Union and China aid North Korea
On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the
38th parallel
and invade South Korea.
On June 27,
Truman
orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans
The
U.N. Security Council
condemns the invasion and established a
15-nation
fighting force.
Chinese troops enter the conflict by year's end.
Cease fire eventually brings war to close by 1953
Korea 1950 - 1953
Eisenhower / Dulles policy of Massive Retaliation (
Brinkmanship
)
Eisenhower
USSR develops
A-Bomb
Arms race
develops between US and USSR
China
falls to the Communists
USSR/China - 1949
NATO
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization created in
1949
USSR creates
Warsaw Pact
in
1955
Western Europe/ North America
Berlin
Blockade
- 1948
Stalin cuts off access to Berlin,
Berlin
Airlift
US sends airplanes with supplies
Berlin, Germany
The
Marshall Plan
gives aid to European Nations
Rebuilt Western Europe, threatened Communism
Western Europe 1947
Turkey
and
Greece
faced Communist revolutions
Truman asks for and receives $400 million to aid fight against communism
Beginning of
Containment
Policy (not allow communism to spread)
Becomes guiding US policy into 1970’s
Truman Doctrine - 1946
Churchill Warns of an “
Iron Curtain
” in Eastern Europe
Stalin calls speech an
act of war
, beginning of the Cold War
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and East Germany became Soviet
satellite
states
United States 1946
Big 3 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin
Meeting more tense (Truman’s style, plus knowledge of the bomb)
Presses Stalin for free elections in Eastern Europe
Stalin later gives speech saying
Capitalism

and
Communism
cannot exist in same world
Finalized the split of Germany and other changes to
European borders
.
Potsdam - 1945
Big 3 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
Germany Split to be into

4 Occupied Zones
Soviet vs. Western Allies (Tension for Four Decades)
Agreement to create
United Nations
Yalta Conference 1945
US
Communism was the
antithesis
(opposite) of Democracy/Freedom/Capitalism
Stalin’s
Purges
Non-Aggression Pact
USSR emphasis on Worldwide communism
USSR
US attempted to undo Revolution
Delayed attack on
Western Front
during WWII
Believes peace will come from worldwide communism
Pre-Cold War distrust
Cold War - A state of
tension
and military
rivalry
between nations that stops short of full-scale war.
Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two
superpowers
left
Why? Different economic systems, strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron Curtain Speech,
Atomic Weapons
Cold War Beginnings
1945-1991
Cold War
Cuban Revolution - 1959
Brinkmanship
Communists only understood force
In order to maintain peace the United States must be
ready for war
To be on the “
brink
” of war
Blockade of Berlin
began on June 24, 1948
From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S. and British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of supplies to the residents of West Berlin.
After
200,000

flights, the Soviet Union lifts the blockade.
Stalin
backs off, Victory for West
1949 – Fall of China
Mao Tse-tung
rallied peasants in 1949
Made
reforms
similar to Stalin’s
collectivization
and industrialization
Dien Bien Phu
After a long siege, Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh defeat French colonial forces at Dien Bien Phu on May 7.
In July, the
Geneva Accords
divide the country at the
17th parallel
, creating a North and South Vietnam.
The United States assumes the chief responsibility of providing anti-communist aid to South Vietnam.
How the end of WWII helped start the Cold War:
Soviet security fears
German invasion during the war created fear of future invasion
U.S. leaders avoid
Isolation
and
Appeasement
New weapons (
nuclear
) lead to the Cold War
Nuclear weapons make warfare extremely dangerous
The rise of Communism in
Asia
China's Great Leap Forward - 1950's
Mao introduced a
Five-Year Plan
in 1958
Cooperative farms were merged into huge
communes
with the goal of turning China into an industrial power.
The plan was an economic
failure
and China faces starvation and economic crisis
30 - 50 million
die
U.N. forces were led by
Douglas MacArthur
MacArthur considered
nuclear
weapons
President Truman was
opposed
to the option and removed MacArthur from command
In 1953, a cease fire and compromise was reached that ended the war and left the country
divided

as it was before the war.
Chinese Communist Revolution
Chiang Kai-Shek

unites most of China
1928
1934-1937
Chang Kai-Shek struggles with Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders
Mao Zedong retreats to NW China in the
Long March
1928-1934
Japan invades China. The Nationalists and the Communists agree to work together to defeat the
Japanese
1937
After Japan was defeated,
fighting

between the Nationalists and the Communists
resumed
.
The
Soviets

assisted the Communists who quickly gained control of the countryside with peasant support by promising
land reforms
1945
1949
Mao Zedong and the Communists finally drove Chang Kai-Shek and the Nationalist out of mainland China. Chang retreated to
Taiwan
.
The Cultural Revolution
This "Revolution" was caused by border disputes with the Soviet Union and Mao's disagreement with Soviet reforms.
Mao wanted to create the "ideal" communist society.
He used his "
Little Red Book
" as a guide
Mao formed the
Red Guards
in 1966 to revitalize China.
This group traveled through China attacking common people who abandoned Communist ideals
Why America got involved?
President Kennedy and others believed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, other Asian nations would soon follow, falling like a row of dominoes.
Based on this
Domino Theory
, Kennedy sent military advisors to help defend South Vietnam, hoping it would develop into a democratic nation.
America’s Role Expands
1964—Congress gave President Johnson authority to halt Vietnamese aggression in the
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
1968—
Vietcong
, Vietnamese Communists, launched attacks throughout South Vietnam in the
Tet Offensive
, showing Americans they were far from winning the war
1973
—the US reaches an agreement with the North Vietnamese so the US withdrew
1975
—the last of our troops were pulled out as Saigon, capital of South Vietnam, falls to the Communist.
Throughout the entire war there were
protests
on both sides.
Cambodia
The withdrawal of American forces in Vietnam led the collapse of the Cambodian government in 1975.
Cambodian Communists called the
Khmer Rouge
took control.
Pol Pot
, the leader, carried out a policy of
genocide
, mass murder, against city dwellers and his opponents.
The Khmer Rouge killed as many as
2-4 million
between 1975 and 1978
The Nuclear Arms Race
After the United States and the Soviet Union developed their first atomic bombs, a race to build more (
stockpiling
) and bigger bombs (
H-Bomb
) began.
These weapons served as
deterrents
to war due to their destructive power.
The Superpowers became locked in a "
Balance of Terror
" which forced them to compete in different arenas.
The
Space Race
is a prime example.
The Space Race
The ultimate goal of the space race is landing a man on the
moon
and returning him safely.
The Soviets won the first two races by being the first to put a man-made satellite (
Sputnik - 1957
) in orbit then putting a man (
Yuri Gagarin - 1961
) in orbit
As a result of Sputnik, in
1958
, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (
NASA
), and the space race is in full gear.
The U.S. wins the space race in
July 1969
when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land on the moon.
Khrushchev comes to power
After Stalin died,
Nikita Khrushchev
became leader of the Soviet Union
Khrushchev
denounces
the policies of Stalin.
1956 begins policy of
De-Stalinization
Khrushchev and Eastern Europe
Poland
Hungary
East Berlin
Czechoslovakia
In 1956, workers went on
strike

for more freedom (autonomy).
Khrushchev conceded their demands as long as Poland remained Communist and loyal to the
Warsaw Pact
.
Students protested and Hungarian leaders threatened to leave the Warsaw Pact.
Soviet troops were sent into Hungary and crushed the reform movement
After many East Germans fled to the West, Khrushchev built the
Berlin Wall
.
In 1961, the wall sealed off East and West Berlin as well as a wall between East and West Germany.
The Berlin Wall served as a
symbol
of the Cold War.
In 1968, Czech leaders implemented a more
liberal
policy called "Communism with a human face".
The Soviets sent tanks to Prague and Czech leaders were replaced by
hardline

Communists
Fidel Castro
and Communists take Cuba
Peasant revolt under Castro
1959
Batista
fled
Castro
Supporter of democracy suspended elections
Established a communist
dictatorship
Seized control of industry and
nationalized
them
Executed rivals
(sound familiar?)
Bay of Pigs
Soviet Stagnation
The Soviet Union fell into a long period of
stagnation
or
failure to advance
, after Khrushchev fell from power.
People had little
incentive
to work because hard work had no
impact
on how much they earned.
This attitude had
negative effects
on food production, quality of goods, and living standards
The Soviet "Command" economy could not compete with free market economies of the West
1964
Leonid Brezhnev
becomes leader of Soviet Union
Czechoslovakian leader Alexander Dubcek lessened censorship “
Prague Spring

Free Expression clamped down with Brezhnev Doctrine (later used in Afghanistan)
Detente
Reduction in hostility between nuclear superpowers
SALT
- Strategic Arms Limitations Talks

(1972, 1979)
The finished agreement, signed in Moscow on May 26, 1972, placed
limits
on both submarine-launched and intercontinental nuclear missiles (
ICBM's
).
This policy was strained to collapse when the Soviets sent troops into Czechoslovakia in 1968 and Afghanistan in 1979
Protesters like
Natan Sharansky
, founder of the Refusenik Movement, were imprisoned for demanding human rights or permission to emigrate
Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)
Mikhail Gorbachev
becomes Premier
Begins a series of Reforms and Freedoms in Russia
perestroika
- restructuring economy, managers make more decisions, small private businesses
glasnost
- means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies
The Iron Curtain Falls
In 1978, a Polish Cardinal was elected Pope John Paul II, the first
non-Italian
Pope in 400 years.
This inspired other Poles to take action.
In 1980, the
Solidarity
movement led by

Lech Walesa
Workers went on strike; govt imposed martial law
1988
reform minded Premier elected
1990
1st free elections; communism falls in Poland
The Berlin Wall Falls - 1989
On September 10,

Hungary

opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West.
After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9.
Start of the collapse of the
Eastern Bloc
Process of
Reunification
1987—Reagan visited Berlin in a speech he said,
“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
German Reunification - 1990
East Germany cut ties with Soviet Union
At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied
occupation
rights in Germany.
On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.
Tiananmen Square - 1989
Chinese college students in
Beijing
staged a peaceful demonstration wanting more personal freedom and democracy.
When they refused to
disperse
, tanks fired on the demonstrators, killing hundreds.
Greater economic freedom has turned China into the fastest growing
global
economy.
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
U.S.S.R after the collapse
Trying to leave Saigon - 1975
"Burning Monk"
"Burning Monk, the sequel"
Anti-war protests
Stand up and stretch!
Refocus...
Pause for the cause...
Resume...
Full transcript