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The Cold War
Transcript of The Cold War
, a sudden government takeover by force, by Communist Hardliners failed due to lack of support
Soviet Republics began declaring their independence. First the
, then Russia, Belarus, and the
which formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
The Soviet Union
and Gorbachev resigned in 1991.
becomes President of Russia
discovered in Cuba
off the coast of Florida
Cuban Missile Crisis
Closest ever coming to Nuclear War
Kennedy vs. Khrushchev
President Kennedy Blocks Cuba with Ships (“eye to eye and the other guy blinked”)
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
An attempted overthrow of Fidel Castro’s Communism
U.S. placed an
Trained and supported a group of 1400 Cuban exiles
Bay of Pigs
American Air support does not appear and the exiles were captured
takes full responsibility for the disaster
U.S. actively aids against
Ho Chi Minh
defeat at Dien Bien Phu
Truman Fires MacArthur
This is the first
between the superpowers
Communist North Korea Invades South Korea
UN and West aid South Korea while Soviet Union and China aid North Korea
On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross the
and invade South Korea.
On June 27,
orders U.S. forces to assist the South Koreans
U.N. Security Council
condemns the invasion and established a
Chinese troops enter the conflict by year's end.
Cease fire eventually brings war to close by 1953
Korea 1950 - 1953
Eisenhower / Dulles policy of Massive Retaliation (
develops between US and USSR
falls to the Communists
USSR/China - 1949
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization created in
Western Europe/ North America
Stalin cuts off access to Berlin,
US sends airplanes with supplies
gives aid to European Nations
Rebuilt Western Europe, threatened Communism
Western Europe 1947
faced Communist revolutions
Truman asks for and receives $400 million to aid fight against communism
Policy (not allow communism to spread)
Becomes guiding US policy into 1970’s
Truman Doctrine - 1946
Churchill Warns of an “
” in Eastern Europe
Stalin calls speech an
act of war
, beginning of the Cold War
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and East Germany became Soviet
United States 1946
Big 3 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin
Meeting more tense (Truman’s style, plus knowledge of the bomb)
Presses Stalin for free elections in Eastern Europe
Stalin later gives speech saying
cannot exist in same world
Finalized the split of Germany and other changes to
Potsdam - 1945
Big 3 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
Germany Split to be into
4 Occupied Zones
Soviet vs. Western Allies (Tension for Four Decades)
Agreement to create
Yalta Conference 1945
Communism was the
(opposite) of Democracy/Freedom/Capitalism
USSR emphasis on Worldwide communism
US attempted to undo Revolution
Delayed attack on
Believes peace will come from worldwide communism
Pre-Cold War distrust
Cold War - A state of
between nations that stops short of full-scale war.
Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two
Why? Different economic systems, strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron Curtain Speech,
Cold War Beginnings
Cuban Revolution - 1959
Communists only understood force
In order to maintain peace the United States must be
ready for war
To be on the “
” of war
Blockade of Berlin
began on June 24, 1948
From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S. and British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of supplies to the residents of West Berlin.
flights, the Soviet Union lifts the blockade.
backs off, Victory for West
1949 – Fall of China
rallied peasants in 1949
similar to Stalin’s
Dien Bien Phu
After a long siege, Vietnamese communists under Ho Chi Minh defeat French colonial forces at Dien Bien Phu on May 7.
In July, the
divide the country at the
, creating a North and South Vietnam.
The United States assumes the chief responsibility of providing anti-communist aid to South Vietnam.
How the end of WWII helped start the Cold War:
Soviet security fears
German invasion during the war created fear of future invasion
U.S. leaders avoid
New weapons (
) lead to the Cold War
Nuclear weapons make warfare extremely dangerous
The rise of Communism in
China's Great Leap Forward - 1950's
Mao introduced a
Cooperative farms were merged into huge
with the goal of turning China into an industrial power.
The plan was an economic
and China faces starvation and economic crisis
30 - 50 million
U.N. forces were led by
President Truman was
to the option and removed MacArthur from command
In 1953, a cease fire and compromise was reached that ended the war and left the country
as it was before the war.
Chinese Communist Revolution
unites most of China
Chang Kai-Shek struggles with Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders
Mao Zedong retreats to NW China in the
Japan invades China. The Nationalists and the Communists agree to work together to defeat the
After Japan was defeated,
between the Nationalists and the Communists
assisted the Communists who quickly gained control of the countryside with peasant support by promising
Mao Zedong and the Communists finally drove Chang Kai-Shek and the Nationalist out of mainland China. Chang retreated to
The Cultural Revolution
This "Revolution" was caused by border disputes with the Soviet Union and Mao's disagreement with Soviet reforms.
Mao wanted to create the "ideal" communist society.
He used his "
Little Red Book
" as a guide
Mao formed the
in 1966 to revitalize China.
This group traveled through China attacking common people who abandoned Communist ideals
Why America got involved?
President Kennedy and others believed that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, other Asian nations would soon follow, falling like a row of dominoes.
Based on this
, Kennedy sent military advisors to help defend South Vietnam, hoping it would develop into a democratic nation.
America’s Role Expands
1964—Congress gave President Johnson authority to halt Vietnamese aggression in the
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
, Vietnamese Communists, launched attacks throughout South Vietnam in the
, showing Americans they were far from winning the war
—the US reaches an agreement with the North Vietnamese so the US withdrew
—the last of our troops were pulled out as Saigon, capital of South Vietnam, falls to the Communist.
Throughout the entire war there were
on both sides.
The withdrawal of American forces in Vietnam led the collapse of the Cambodian government in 1975.
Cambodian Communists called the
, the leader, carried out a policy of
, mass murder, against city dwellers and his opponents.
The Khmer Rouge killed as many as
between 1975 and 1978
The Nuclear Arms Race
After the United States and the Soviet Union developed their first atomic bombs, a race to build more (
) and bigger bombs (
These weapons served as
to war due to their destructive power.
The Superpowers became locked in a "
Balance of Terror
" which forced them to compete in different arenas.
is a prime example.
The Space Race
The ultimate goal of the space race is landing a man on the
and returning him safely.
The Soviets won the first two races by being the first to put a man-made satellite (
Sputnik - 1957
) in orbit then putting a man (
Yuri Gagarin - 1961
) in orbit
As a result of Sputnik, in
, the U.S. creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (
), and the space race is in full gear.
The U.S. wins the space race in
when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land on the moon.
Khrushchev comes to power
After Stalin died,
became leader of the Soviet Union
the policies of Stalin.
1956 begins policy of
Khrushchev and Eastern Europe
In 1956, workers went on
for more freedom (autonomy).
Khrushchev conceded their demands as long as Poland remained Communist and loyal to the
Students protested and Hungarian leaders threatened to leave the Warsaw Pact.
Soviet troops were sent into Hungary and crushed the reform movement
After many East Germans fled to the West, Khrushchev built the
In 1961, the wall sealed off East and West Berlin as well as a wall between East and West Germany.
The Berlin Wall served as a
of the Cold War.
In 1968, Czech leaders implemented a more
policy called "Communism with a human face".
The Soviets sent tanks to Prague and Czech leaders were replaced by
and Communists take Cuba
Peasant revolt under Castro
Supporter of democracy suspended elections
Established a communist
Seized control of industry and
Bay of Pigs
The Soviet Union fell into a long period of
failure to advance
, after Khrushchev fell from power.
People had little
to work because hard work had no
on how much they earned.
This attitude had
on food production, quality of goods, and living standards
The Soviet "Command" economy could not compete with free market economies of the West
becomes leader of Soviet Union
Czechoslovakian leader Alexander Dubcek lessened censorship “
Free Expression clamped down with Brezhnev Doctrine (later used in Afghanistan)
Reduction in hostility between nuclear superpowers
- Strategic Arms Limitations Talks
The finished agreement, signed in Moscow on May 26, 1972, placed
on both submarine-launched and intercontinental nuclear missiles (
This policy was strained to collapse when the Soviets sent troops into Czechoslovakia in 1968 and Afghanistan in 1979
, founder of the Refusenik Movement, were imprisoned for demanding human rights or permission to emigrate
Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)
Begins a series of Reforms and Freedoms in Russia
- restructuring economy, managers make more decisions, small private businesses
- means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies
The Iron Curtain Falls
In 1978, a Polish Cardinal was elected Pope John Paul II, the first
Pope in 400 years.
This inspired other Poles to take action.
In 1980, the
movement led by
Workers went on strike; govt imposed martial law
reform minded Premier elected
1st free elections; communism falls in Poland
The Berlin Wall Falls - 1989
On September 10,
opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West.
After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9.
Start of the collapse of the
1987—Reagan visited Berlin in a speech he said,
“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
German Reunification - 1990
East Germany cut ties with Soviet Union
At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied
rights in Germany.
On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.
Tiananmen Square - 1989
Chinese college students in
staged a peaceful demonstration wanting more personal freedom and democracy.
When they refused to
, tanks fired on the demonstrators, killing hundreds.
Greater economic freedom has turned China into the fastest growing
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
U.S.S.R after the collapse
Trying to leave Saigon - 1975
"Burning Monk, the sequel"
Stand up and stretch!
Pause for the cause...