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Copy of Copy of Punctuation Saves Lives!

Periods, commas, semicolons, and colons

Melody Cravens

on 7 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Punctuation Saves Lives!

Periods, Commas, Semicolons, and Colons
Punctuation Saves Lives!
The Misused Comma , , , , , ,
Please don't misuse me.
You will be able to correctly punctuate sentences using a:
Let's review...

The Almighty PERIOD
You use a period for:

(1) Abbreviations

Washington, D.C. S.O.L.

(2) To indicate the end of a complete sentence (there must be a SUBJECT & a PREDICATE).

Taylor Swift is dating Harry Styles.
Let's see if you get it.
Do we need to insert a period?

(1) FBI

(2) Where is Ms Cravens

(3) Mrs Dietz is from California
Punctuation Matters because...
Punctuation marks are the traffic signals of language: they tell us to slow down, notice this, take a detour, or stop.
Rules for using the comma.
Rule #1
Use commas to separate words in a series of three or more. Make sure to put a comma BEFORE "and".

Russell Crowe, Hugh Jackman, and Anne Hathaway are all actors in "Les Miserables."
Rules for using the comma
When you naturally pause when talking, use a comma.
Let's Practice!
Do we need to use a comma?
(1) I enjoy eating books and traveling.

(2) While at my house my uncle ate all our cookies.

(3) My mom barged into my room before I could open the door.

(4) My Grandma likes to eat cake pickles and ham.
Comma Rule #3
If it's not essential information, use a comma! In other words, if you can take out the phrase & the sentence still makes sense, it's not essential.

Ms. Kratovil, an English teacher, loves to shop vintage clothes.

Richmond, the capital of Virginia, is two hours from Alexandria.
Did you get it?
Do the following sentences contain non-essential information that require commas?

TC Williams High School, home of the Titans, is on King Street.

Red, the first color of the rainbow, is my favorite color.
Still having fun?!
But, wait! There's more!
The daunting semicolon
(Don't be afraid...it won't bite!)
Golden Rule
Use a semicolon instead of a period when you remove the coordinator from in between two independent clauses.

Call me tomorrow

I will give you my answer.
Call me tomorrow; I will give you my answer.

I paid my rent

I expect my air conditioning to work.

I paid my rent; I expect my A.C. to work.
Let's Practice!
Where do we put the semicolons? How can we combine the independent clauses?
I'm allergic to ice cream,
I eat it anyway. -->

Dogs are my favorite animal,
I love all breeds. -->

No one was seriously hurt in the accident,
one man suffered a broken finger. -->
Last, but certainly not least...
The COLON!!! :
Colon Rule #1:
Use a colon before a list. Think of the colon as a gate, inviting you to go on.

There's only one way to get an A second quarter: do all your homework, study for the test, and come to class every day.

The baseball coach claimed that the team's success stemmed from four things: consistent hitting, solid pitching, good fielding, and excellent teamwork.
Colon Rule #2
Use a colon to signal the reader that a name or description follows a complete sentence when you want to put a lot of emphasis on that item.

The local anglers had a nickname for the large muskie that had cruised the lake's shoreline for years without being caught: Old Mossback.

The preoccupied burglar didn't notice who was standing right behind him: a smiling police officer.
Colon Rule #3
Use a colon to introduce a long quotation after a complete sentence.
In his book, Language is Sermonic, rhetorician Richard Weaver described how language may influence us:

Sophistications of theory cannot obscure the truth that there are but three ways for language to affect us. It can move us toward what is good; it can move us toward what is evil; or it can, in hypothetical third place, fail to move us at all (60).
Practice Time!
Insert necessary colons in the following sentences:
1)The airplane plip-plopped down the runway to a halt before the big sign WELCOME TO CYPRUS.
2)There are three choices in this life be good, get good, or give up.
3)In "Song of Myself," Walt Whitman lavishes praise on the earth, as if he were addressing a lover

Smile, o voluptuous, cool-breathed earth
Earth of the slumbering and liquid trees
Earth of departed sunset, earth of mountains misty-topped
Earth of the vitreous pour of the full moon, just tinged with blue. . . .
Smile, for your lover comes (87).
Let's review! Match each punctuation mark with its function.
This punctuation mark is used for abbreviations, and it is used at the end of a complete sentence
This punctuation mark is used to separate three or more words in a series, to offset an introduction, and when separating non essential information.
This punctuation mark is used instead of a period when you remove the coordinator from in between two independent clauses.
This punctuation mark is used to offset a list, to signal the reader that a name or description follows a complete sentence, and to introduce a quotation after a complete sentence.
See the difference? How do the commas change the meaning of the sentence?
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