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2. The United Nations - How does it work?

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on 13 July 2015

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Transcript of 2. The United Nations - How does it work?

The United Nations was founded after World War II with the aspiration to avoid future wars through diplomacy and dialogue between nations. The United Nations formally came into being on 24 October 1945. At that time, it had 51 countries as Members.

Currently, 193 countries are UN members; the latest state to join was South Sudan in July 2011.

Created in 1945
What does the
United Nations
The United Nations
is the forum where 193 countries meet to discuss important issues such as
human rights
social and economic development
, and
peace & security
, among others.

The UN plays a central role in reducing international tensions,
preventing conflicts
and putting an
end to fighting.

The United Nations provides means to help maintain
international peace and security,
to help those most in need, and to formulate policies on matters affecting all of


*Want to see where the United Nations Information Centers are located?
Go to: http://prezi.com/dcfflysgccax/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
The United Nations is an organization of
Sovereign States
, which voluntarily join together to be part of a forum. This provides them with the mechanisms necessary to find solutions to problems and disputes, and to act on matters of concern to humanity.

The main UN offices are in
New York
. There are also over 63 “Information Centers” throughout the world that serve the international community*.
The United Nations is only as strong as its members states
The UN depends on the its Members to have decisions implemented and relies on Members’ contributions to
The UN has no other
source of income
The United Nations works for
The United Nations
addresses issues relating
to our environment
Outer space
The planet’s sea-bed
It has also helped wipe out many diseases
expand literacy
It cares for and protects refugees
responds to natural disasters
Helped protect and promote rights of individuals by setting a global standard for human rights
And has increased food security and production
The UN works on health, agriculture, telecommunications, tourism, labour, postal services, the environment, civil aviation, children, atomic energy, refugees, intellectual property, drugs and crime, human settlements, and weather. The different areas of work are done by more than
organizations known as the
UN System
How does the United Nations do all this?

The latest addition to the UN family of organizations is
UN Women,
an entity for gender equality and empowerment of women, created in 2010.
How does it work?
Parlez-vous Francais?
If your answer is Oui!, then you probably speak at least two of the six official languages of the United Nations. The official languages are used to help the Member States to understand each other better.

The working languages at the UN Secretariat are
. During meetings, delegates may speak in any of the official languages, and the speech is interpreted simultaneously into the other official languages. Most UN documents are also printed in all six official languages

The official languages are:

The United Nations consist of main organs

the General Assembly
the Security Council
the Economic and Social Council
the Trusteeship Council
the International Court of Justice
the Secretariat

Each organ contributes to the work of the United Nations. You can learn more about them and their functions in this prezi: https://prezi.com/ippxcexs2xib/the-un-system/
The Three Pillars of the United Nations
Peace & Security
Human Rights
The United Nations peacekeepers with their blue helmets are the most visible symbols of the UN’s peace efforts. The peacekeepers are soldiers drawn voluntarily from various national armies, and they fulfill the role of an impartial third party. They help create and maintain a ceasefire and form a buffer zone between parties in conflict. The Security Council determines the deployment of new UN peacekeeping operations.

(1) Consent of the parties
(2) Impartiality
(3) Non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate

United Nations does not have its own standing army; peacekeepers are contributed by Member States

Their presence helps make the search for peaceful settlement of conflict through diplomatic channels possible. As peacekeepers maintain peace on the ground, mediators from the United Nations meet with leaders from the disputing parties or countries and try to reach a peaceful solution.

Peacekeepers are increasingly involved with assisting in political processes, reforming justice systems, training law enforcement and police forces, disarming former combatants and clearing land mines.

The UN has helped end conflicts and foster reconciliation by conducting successful peacekeeping operations in dozens of countries, including Cambodia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mozambique, Namibia and Tajikistan.

In when the United Nations adopted
it set a common standard of human rights for all nations. By this Declaration, Governments are expected to accept their obligation to ensure that all human beings, rich and poor, strong and weak, male and female, of all races and religions, are treated equally.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights works to

“Where, after all, do universal human rights begin? In small places, close to home — so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world… Without concerted citizen action to uphold them close to home, we shall look in vain for progress in the larger world.”
— Eleanor Roosevelt, first Chairperson of the UN Human Rights Commission

One of the great achievements of the UN is the creation of a large body of
— a universal and internationally protected to which all nations must and all people . Since its inception, the UN has adopted numerous international treaties on human rights, covering such issues as women’s rights, racial discrimination and children’s rights.

When became parties to these treaties, they accept an obligation to honour them. When violations occur, specially-created treaty bodies review them and make recommendations to rectify the situation. The UN can also censure a country for not honouring obligations under an international human rights treaty.

All UN entities have a role to play in promoting and protecting human rights through and within their operations. However, is the principal United Nations office mandated to promote and protect human rights for all.

It seeks to integrate human rights in all components of UN Peace Missions with priorities:
1. Ensuring justice and accountability in peace processes
2. Preventing and redressing human rights violations
3. Building capacities and strengthening national institutions
4. Mainstreaming human rights in all UN programmes.
These people often don’t have access to the fundamentals of a decent life—sufficient food, safe water, reliable health care, adequate shelter, basic education, training and opportunities to sustain livelihoods.

Lasting world peace cannot be achieved until social and economic development for all is achieved. The United Nations devotes more than of its resources to achieve this goal.

At the Millennium Summit in September 2000, the largest gathering of world leaders in history adopted the
committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time-bound targets known as the

The MDG's are for addressing extreme poverty in its many dimensions—income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter and exclusion—while promoting gender equality, education and environmental sustainability. They are also goals for basic human rights—the rights of each person to health, education, shelter and security.

With the target date of the Millennium Development Goals coming up at the end of this year, the UN system is beginning to prepare for what comes next,

The post-2015 development agenda would rise to new world challenges while building on the strengths of the MDG's. It must also go beyond the challenges of today: climate change, loss of biodiversity; increasing land degradation and scarcity of freshwater; growing social inequity, rising unemployment, high population growth, unsustainable urbanization and marine degradation.
It does not have an army or taxes.
All the parts within the UN System work together with the
UN Secretariat.
Human Rights
Peacekeeping guiding principles
Modern-day peacekeeping is more than maintaining peace and security.
In comparison, in 2010, the world spent $1.63 on military expenditure.
Since 1948, UN peacekeepers undertook field missions.
At the start of 2012, there were 98,653 uniformed personnel and 17,371 civilian personnel serving in
UN peace operations deployed on 4 continents.
A total of countries have contributed military and police personnel to UN peacekeeping.
This directly impacts the lives of hundreds of millions of people.
The approved peacekeeping budget up to June 2012 was approximately
billion, representing less than
of global military spending.
1 %
In 2006, the General Assembly approved the establishment of the new, strengthened Human Rights Council to replace the UN Human Rights Commission.

The new Council, inaugurated on 19 June 2006 in Geneva, has a higher status in the UN System as a subsidiary body of the General Assembly.

The Human Rights Council meets 10 weeks every year. It is composed of 47 elected Member States who serve for an initial period of 3 years, and cannot be elected for more than 2 consecutive terms.

The Council is the main UN forum for dialogue and cooperation on human rights. It is administered by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), headquartered in Geneva.
protect all peoples
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
human rights law
The Human Rights Council
About billion people in the world now live in absolute poverty
—earning less than $1 a day.
80 %
One of the main outcomes of the Rio+20 Conference was the agreement by member States to launch a process to develop a set of
(SDGs), which will build upon the Millennium Development Goals and converge with the post 2015 development agenda.

It was agreed that the SDG's must be:

Easy to communicate
Limited in number
Global in nature
Universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities.
Sustainable Development Goals
UN Millennium Declaration,
Millennium Development Goals
the world’s targets
a post-2015 UN Development Agenda.
carry out its activities.
The Member States pay
for everything that
the United Nations does.
Though sometimes described as a “parliament of nations,” the United Nations is not a world government.
women sparks progress in education, health, productivity and growth, and helps to
improve a country’s
level of
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