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The Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction/Redemption Periods

8th Grade Social Studies Project- Jeanne
by

Suk Joon Jeanne

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of The Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction/Redemption Periods

The Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction/Redemption Periods By: Aden, Hiren, Jack, Jake, Jeanne, Jiwon, and Sahil Key Issues Leading to the Civil War By: Hiren and Jack Key Events in the Civil War The Impact of Reconstruction By: Jake, Jeanne, and Jiwon Other Major Impacts Rights Denied to African Americans By: Aden and Sahil Important People No More Notes The 5 S's 1. States' Rights: 2. Sectionalism 3. Secession 4. Selection of Lincoln 5. Social Structure Videos/Review The North disagreed with slavery because they had machines to do their work, but the South needed slaves for their farms and plantations. http://www.schooltube.com/video/41980f66b4754fa7af2e/Civil%20War%20Amendments The North believed that their ideas were better and more important, and the South disagreed. http://www.schooltube.com/video/a5ec4d5df0194172ab75/America%20the%20Story%20of%20Us%20-%20Civil%20War%20-%20the%20Telegraph%20and%20Civil%20War%20Medicine Parts of the South weren't sure if they wanted to secede or not, especially Georgia. Ultimately, they all seceded. 4. Selection of Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was elected president, but he didn't receive even half of the nation's popular vote. He also didn't receive a single vote from the South. Southern citizens were born into their social class and usually remained in the same class for all of their lives. It was difficult to move up. In the North, social class was based on wealth. If you worked hard, you would move up. Other Issues 2. Secession 3. Sectionalism 5. Social Structure The South was divided on whether or not they wanted to secede, especially Georgia. Ultimately, they seceded. Both regions of the country believed that their ideas were better and more important than the other's. Abraham Lincoln was elected president without even half of the nation's popular vote. He didn't receive a single electoral vote from the South, so they grew angry. Southern citizens were born into their social class and often didn't ever move up or down. The North's social class was based on wealth. If you worked hard, you would move up. Other Issues Slavery: The North disagreed with slavery because they had machines to do their work, but the South needed slaves for plantations and farms. Nullification: The South wanted to nullify the high taxes that the North was forcing on them. Missouri Compromise: In 1820, Missouri entered as a slave state while Maine entered as a free state. The country agreed that for every slave state that entered the Union, a free state would also join. Compromise of 1850: California entered the Union as a free state. > Benefits for the North include the end of slave trade in the District of Columbia and Texas gave up trying to annex New Mexico, removing its status as a slave state. > Benefits for the South: The territories of Utah and New Mexico could decide if they wanted to be a slave state or a free state, the residents of the District of Columbia could keep their slaves, and Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act. Georgia Platform: Georgia, as a state, supported the Compromise of 1850, but many Georgians disagreed. Kansas-Nebraska Act: The territories of Kansas and Nebraska were created. They were able to decide whether they wanted to be a slave state or free state through popular sovereignty. Dred Scott: Dred Scott was a slave that sued for his freedom because he stepped on free state soil with his master. Congress ruled that slaves were not citizens and could therefore not sue. Alexander Stephens was the vice president of the Confederacy during the Civil War. He rejected secession at first. Battles Antietam: This was the bloodiest one day battle in Civil War history. It occurred on September 17, 1863. 23, 000 soldiers were killed, wounded, or missing. Gettysburg: The Union victory that became the turning point of the Civil War. Chickamauga: The Confederate army pushed the Union back to Tennessee. Following this, Fort Bragg surrendered. Battle Tactics Emancipation Proclamation: President Lincoln stated that unless the South surrendered by January 1, 1863, all states would be freed. Union Blockade: The Union blocked off all Confederate forts, taking a huge toll on the South. They couldn't sell cotton abroad or receive war supplies. Atlanta and Savannah Campaigns: General Sherman's army began a march to Atlanta, Georgia. Johnson's army was there to hold them back and then retreated southward. Sherman's March to the Sea: After Atlanta, General William T. Sherman headed to Savannah and burned everything in his path (60 miles wide). The march was called the "March to the Sea". The estimate of damage was as high as $100 million. After reaching Savannah, he burned everything but the cotton stock. Andersonville Prison: This was a Confederate prison for Union soldiers. There were very poor conditions. During the 15 months it was active, 13,000 Union soldiers died. Important Organizations/People Freedman's Bureau: The Freedman's Bureau originally helped poor whites and newly freed slaves get bare necessities. Later on, the organization helped developed many public schools and colleges, as well as hired many teachers. Henry McNeal Turner: He was one of the first African Americans to be elected into Georgia office. Black Legislatures: Legislators such as Tunis Campbell, Aaron Bradley, and Hiram Revels took office. Ku Klux Klan (KKK): They worked to keep freedmen from voting after the Civil war and promote racial discrimination against African Americans. They believed in white supremacy. Reconstruction Sharecropping and Tenant Farming: A sharecropper rented land, supplies, and money from a landowner in return for around 50% of the profit. A tenant farmer had his own animals and supplies but rented land for a smaller share of the profit. Reconstruction Plans: President Lincoln wanted to enact a 10% Plan. He wanted to pardon rebels who took an oath of loyalty to the Union, and only 10% of the population would have to swear for the state to be readmitted into the Union. He wanted the country united easily, thus letting the Wade-Davis Bill die by not reacting. President Johnson implemented a harsher plan due to Radical Republicans wanting strong punishment against the South. His plan disenfranchised all military and civil officers of the Confederacy as well as people who owned over $20,000 worth of property. The majority of the population had to swear and oath to be readmitted. Reconstruction Amendments: The 13th amendment abolished slavery. The 14th amendment stated that the state would provide equal protection for every citizen and provide due process and equal constitutional rights for every man. The 15th amendment stated that voting rights could not be withheld based on race, ethnicity, religion, etc. Important People Bourbon Triumvirate: Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John Gordon were three governors that wanted stronger economic ties with the North to expand the South's economy. They believed in white supremacy and were criticized for not helping the poor, improving education, reform factory conditions, improve mental hospitals, or improving the lives of convicts. Joseph E. Brown was governor of Georgia from 1857-1865. He believed in states' rights. Alfred H. Colquitt was governor from 1876-1883. He reduced the state's debt and approved a new constitution in 1877. John B. Gordon reduced state debts and brought industries to Georgia. Henry Grady: Henry Grady coined the term "New South". He wanted to bring jobs, recognition, and investments to recover Georgia's economy. Tom Watson and the Populist Party: Tom Watson was the leader of the Populist Party, a party for poor, mainly white farmers. The party began from the Farmer's Alliance, which tried to convince the government to print more money and coin more silver. They called for a direct election of senators and were against high railroad fees. Tom Watson created the Rural Free Delivery Bill. The Feltons: Rebecca L. Felton and her husband William Felton were Independent Democrats that publicly attacked the Bourbon Triumvirate for ignoring the middle and lower classes. She became a leader in the Temperance and Suffrage movements. The Cartersville Courant, their family-owned newspaper. helped end the influence of the Bourbon Triumvirate. Leo Frank Case: Leo Frank was a Jewish man accused of murdering one of his employees, Mary Phagan. He was found guilty but was pardoned by the governor. He was hanged later on. This showed the discrimination of races/ethnicities other than African Americans. The KKK also arose from this incident, calling themselves the "Knights of Mary Phagan". International Cotton Exposition: This displayed Southern products like sugar, rice, and tobacco. Other Important Information 1906 Atlanta Race Riot: This was a civil disturbance that occurred on September 22, 1906. There was an estimated 25-40 African Americans killed. The conflict was rising tension between blacks and whites over civil matters, such as rights. County Unit System: Each county received one vote. This system was later declared unconstitutional because rural counties had more power over urban counties, due to their numbers. Jim Crow Laws: These laws established "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites in public areas. They were rarely equal for African Americans. Plessy vs. Ferguson: Homer Plessy sat in a "white only" section of a train car. He was arrested. The case reached the Supreme Court and Plessy's side lost 7-1. It gave the states the right to control social discrimination and promote segregation of races. Disenfranchisement: Disenfranchisement prevented African Americans from voting. It included poll taxes, residency requirements, rule variations, literacy/understanding tests, etc. For nearly two decades, blacks were blocked from their right to vote. Booker T. Washington: He believed that economic independence was the only road to social/political equality for blacks. He opposed W.E.B. DuBois's ideas and views, and proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefit from each other. He supported black self-improvement. W.E.B. DuBois: He opposed Booker T. Washington. He believed in the "Talented Tenth", which stated that there should be a higher education for 10% of African Americans. This 10% would lead the rest of the race to equality. John and Lugenia Hope: They worked for social equality, but didn't share views with Booker T. Washington. They agreed with DuBois and helped found NAACP. They were leaders in other organizations and unions. Alonzo Herndon: Alonzo was the founder of the Atlanta Family Life Insurance Company. He was the first black millionaire in Atlanta.
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