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Chapter 34: From Republic To Empire

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Ms. Strickland

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 34: From Republic To Empire

Second Period
Overseas Expansion During The Punic Wars, 264 B.C.E-146 B.C.E:
1) From 264 B.C.E to 146 B.C.E, Rome fought three major wars (Punic Wars) with another growing power, Carthage (in North Africa).

2) First Punic War: Fought mostly at sea, the Romans copied and improved Carthaginian ship designs to win this war.

Republic To Empire:
1) By 14 C.E. the republic, or a government run by elected officials, had slowly disappeared; Power ended up in the hands of a single ruler, an emperor.

2) This transition from republic to empire took over 500 years and can be divided into four major periods.

Republic to Empire: First Period
Rome’s Conquest Of The Italian Peninsula, 509 B.C.E.-264 B.C.E:
1) After 509 B.C.E, Rome wanted to expand its borders; For the next 245 years, the Romans fought one enemy after another.

2) Wisely, the Romans built up their army and made allies; With this extra help, they eventually gained control over all of Italy.

Second Period con't
Overseas Expansion During The Punic Wars, 264 B.C.E-146 B.C.E:
3) Second Punic War: 23 years later ,Hannibal, a brilliant Carthaginian general decided to try and invade Italy; Fought in Italy for 15 years.

4) He eventually had to return home to defend Carthage from the invading Roman army where he was defeated.

Overseas Expansion During The Punic Wars, 264 B.C.E-146 B.C.E:
5) Third Punic War: After 50 years of peace, the Romans decided that they wanted to attack Carthage and take over their lands.

6) After 3 years of fighting, the Romans burned Carthage to the ground and took complete control over the area.

Punic Wars Video 14.20

Chapter 34: From Republic To Empire
Expansion During The Final Years Of The Republic, 145 B.C.E-44 B.C.E:
1) Roman conquests brought great wealth to Rome, but also put the republic form of government under great strain.

2) Many of Rome’s allies resented paying taxes without rights so they rebelled, slave revolts were also common (Spartacus), and fighting broke out among the generals for control of Rome.

Third Period
3) Julius Caesar and Pompey were two generals that battled for control of Rome; Pompey was defeated and Caesar ended the Roman republic by declaring himself dictator.

4) Although Caesar introduced many reforms or changes to help the Romans, he was later murdered by a group of Senators.

Third Period Con't
Rome Becomes An Empire, 44 B.CE.-14 C.E.:
1) After Caesar’s murder, Rome plunged into a series of civil wars for 10 years; At the end of the 10 years, one ruler emerged, Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew).

2) The Senate changed his name to Augustus, which means honored/sacred; Historians call him Rome’s first emperor.

Fourth Period
3) Augustus:
*Encouraged education, art, and literature.
*Repaired old temples.
*Pushed the borders of the empire to natural boundaries (rivers, mountains) to avoid invasion.
*Improved trade by building more trade routes.

Fourth Period-Augustus
4) United under Roman rule, the Mediterranean world was at peace for almost 200 years; This time of peace was called Pax Romana.

5) Later emperors added territory to the Roman Empire that would make it stretch from Britain to the Black Sea.

Pax Romana
Full transcript