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Biology 11.1 & 11.2

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Amber Dowdy

on 26 October 2011

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Transcript of Biology 11.1 & 11.2

11.1 Basic Patterns of Human Inheritance Recessive Disorder Cystic Fibrosis (CF): excessive mucus, digestive and respiratory failures, no cure

Must clean mucus from lungs daily Albinism: no color in skin, hair or eyes

There is no cure Tay-Sachs: absence of enzyme that breaks down fat, so fat builds up on brain.

There is no cure.

Death by age 5. Dominant Recessive Disorder People who do not have the disorder are homozygous for the trait Huntington's: affects neurological functions, decline of mental health

No cure or treatment Achondroplasia: short arms and legs, large head

Gene that affects bone growth is abnormal

There is no cure or treatment Pedigrees: diagram that traces the inheritnace of a trait through several generations

Males--square
Females--circles One who expressed the trait is filled or dark, one who does not is empty Horizontal line represents the parents of the offspring listed below

Roman numerals represents the generation, the birth order shown by Arabic numerals Polydactyly: extra fingers and toes.
It is the dominant genetic disorder. Predicting disorders: if good records are kept, predicting disorders is much easier.
This is why when you go to the doctor, you fill out a questionaire about your family history. 11.2 Complex Patterns of Inheritance Incomplete dominance: heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate phenotype between the 2 homozygous phenotypes.

Example: red flower mized with white flower=pink flowers Codominance: both alleles are expr~essed in heterozygous condition.
Example :sickle cell
~common in African Americans

Blood cells are not rounded, but a "C" shape.

Can't transport oxygen efficiently Blood groups are determined by multiple alleles

4 blood types:
A
AB
B
O Sex Determination sex chromosomes: determine gender of baby

XX=female
XY=male
**the other 22 chromosomes are known as autosomes The X chromosome is larger than the Y. In females, one X stops working, this is known as dosage compensation. The Y chromosome is responsible for the development of male characteristics. Polygenic traits: interactions of multiple pairs of genes to determine skin type, height, eye color, fingerprint pattern Theing that influence environmental phenotypes: sun, water, temperature
**Diet, exercise, life style Identical twins are genetically the same. If a traitis a inherited, they will BOTH have it.
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