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Transcript of Henry Hudson
While Hudson never did find the Northwest Passage to Asia as he had hoped, he did help to expand human knowledge with his explorations of the Pacific Ocean.
Henry Hudson was born in England between 1565-1570. He was from a wealthy family.
He went on various voyages when he was young and studied cartography, navigation, mathematics, astronomy, and seamanship.
His grandfather founded Merchant Adventurers, which later became The Muscovy Trading Company. The Muscovy Trading Company was made up of London merchants who wanted to search for the Northeast Passage. This would allow the London businessmen to trade faster and easier with Russia.
Hudson explored for England on his first, second, and fourth voyages and for Holland on his third. His first expedition was on May 1, 1607 with his son and 11 other crew members.
They sailed from England hoping to find the Northeast Passage through the Arctic Ocean.
This first voyage was unsuccessful.
Basically geographers at that time thought that the farther North you went would lead you to open water because there was a lot of sunlight at the North Pole so the ice would all be melted.
Hudson did, however, discover a lot of whales which merchants were interested in.
In 1608, Henry Hudson was ready to command his 2nd expedition to discover a Northeast Passage through the Arctic Ocean. In April, he traveled past Norway and towards Russia, but because of conditions on board and the freezing weather and ice, his crew had came to near mutiny. He turned around and on August 28th arrived back in England.
Because of his previous failures, he had to approach the Dutch to help pay for a third expedition.
Hudson, not wanting a mutiny, decided to change direction toward warmer waters.
By July he got to the new world. He found what is now Hudson Bay and decided to explore its river. He was still hoping to discover a route to the Indies.
Hudson wrote to the Dutch United East India Company telling them of the success of his journey and asking for more money to explore more. They ordered him back to Amsterdam immediately. The Half Moon went back to Holland with logs and maps, but Henry Hudson never made it.
News of his discovery spread around England and the merchants and traders wanted a part of this great wealth in the New World. He was arrested in England for sailing under the Dutch flag and appeared before King James I.
The King was upset for allowing Holland to gain the knowledge and riches of the voyage instead of England.
Meanwhile, the Dutch had begun to send colonies and settlers to the area surrounding the Hudson River.
Because of the great wealth the New World offered, the Muscovy Trading Company sent Hudson back in 1610. He discovered the Hudson Strait, which was very dangerous due to icebergs. He sailed south to James Bay still looking for a way to the Pacific Ocean, but his ship became stuck in the frozen ice. Hudson and his crew were forced to spend the winter in the Canadian Arctic, becoming the first Europeans to do so. The terrible conditions caused the crew to mutiny.
On the 22nd of June, 1611, Henry Hudson, his son John, and 8 loyal crew members, were cast adrift in a small boat and they were never heard from again. We will never know what happened to Henry Hudson, how long he might have survived due to his friendships with the Native people, or exactly how he died.
Some say he and his crew traveled on the Ottawa River, based on the letters “HH” found carved into stones along the way. Some even told of his burial places and others claiming he made it back to the Arctic Ocean where he had discovered the whales. We will never know.
The Dutch United East India Company gave him an old, small ship called the Half Moon. In April 1609, he left Holland and went North once again, but the same freezing conditions made the crew upset.
Only COOL explorers get their own bobble head!
What ever happened to Henry Hudson?
Out of his crew, only 8 made it back alive to England. Many rumors and stories about Henry Hudson then were told. Some claimed that he had secretly found the Northwest Passage before the mutiny.
He sailed up to New York Bay and explored all over current waters of New York, New Jersey, and the New England area and claimed all of the land for Holland.
I Love Tights.
"Canadian Winter Sucks!"
Another Random Cool Map
Henry Hudson left several positive cultural impacts with his discovery of the Hudson Bay and surrounding River. The merchants could now use the water to make trade easier and ship things between America and Europe. Because he sailed under the Dutch flag, Henry Hudson allowed colonies and people to arrive from Holland, making the area not simply English anymore. This was a big impact because their culture came with them and helped to shape the melting pot that the Americas would become.
Some of the negative cultural impacts of Henry Hudson's exploration were that he came into contact several times with the Native people living on the land and many times this led to a skirmish and the people got in a fight or died. This was one of many reasons why the Natives didn't like the white men. The Dutch colonists began to settle into the Hudson Valley and claimed the land as theirs, which also made the Native people upset.