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Transcript of Classroom Management
Mark Freeman Structuring the Environment
Chapter 6. Part One: Designing the Physical Classroom Environment -Environmental Conditions
-Use of Space
-Bulletin boards and display areas
-New Technologies in the Classroom Outline Part One: Designing the Physical Classroom Environment Part Two: Establishing Classroom Guidelines Part Three: Cultural Embededness of Rules and Routines ACTIVITY With your group, design the "perfect" classroom environment in accordance to the situation you have been assigned. Environmental Conditions Proper Lighting
Noise Control Use of space Seating Arrangements New Technology in the Classroom Bulletin Boards and Displays Part Two Establishing Classroom Guidelines Classroom Routines
Four Requirements of Rules
Student Directed Approach to Classroom Learning
Obtaining Commitments to Rules
Developing Consequences (Natural/Logical)
Teaching and Evaluating Classroom Routines Rules and Routines: NOT meant to manage disruptive behavior
Are taught through demonstrations and examples
Good routines MAXIMIZE on task behavior
Time consuming...but worth it!
Examples??? Classroom Rules: The Need? Counter Part to routines
Slower to develop
Focus on appropriate classroom behavior
Needed to ensure maximized learning time
Directed at organizing learning environment
**NOT TO EXERT CONTROL OVER STUDENTS** Determining Necessary Rules: DO NOT: Use a long list of Do's and Don'ts
Rules should be made WITH the students Rules established should be ones that can be solved by natural and logical consequences.
Rules MUST be properly communicated to all students Which brings us to the Four Requirements of Rules............. 1) Teachers right to teach is protected
2) Students right to learn is protected
3) Students psychological and physical safety is protected
4)School property is protected Student directed approach to classroom learning provides students a chance to develop rules in collaboration with the teacher, which is carried out in a four part process:
1) Begin by discussing hopes, dreams and goals for the year
2)Generate initial rule list by discussing necessary behaviors and class conditions that will help achieve these goals
3)Re-frame the list in positive terms
4)Trim the list down to four or five "global" or essential rules. *OBTAIN COMMITMENT TO THE RULES* Developing Consequences Natural and Logical Consequences Natural:
Outcomes of behavior that occur without teacher intervention. Such as getting a poor grade for not finishing or handing in assignments. Logical:
Directly related to student behavior, but REQUIRE teacher intervention. Such as student recess time being reduced because of misbehavior(Not properly lining up to leave class). There can be 3 steps to logical consequence.
1) "You spilled the milk, so you clean it up." (Logical Consequences)
2) "Janette make the choice to walk without pushing, or else you can hold my hand." (Give them a choice-address the student, the error, the solution, the consequence)
3) Last resort: Contrived Consequence AKA punishment. In the form of removal of privileges, suspension, or expulsion. Teaching and Evaluating Rules Like when working with difficult math problems, students need PRACTICE and FEEDBACK when it comes to understanding and following classroom rules.
New activities often require new rules and routines.
Even directions for an activity can take up to a whole class to discuss.
Teachers can have students demonstrate their understandings of rules through written exams, this is popular in industrial arts for items such as safety exams. Cultural Embeddedness of Rules and Routines Culture refers to the knowledge, customs, rituals, emotions, traditions and standards shared by members of a population and embodied in a set of behaviors designed for survival in a particular environment. Culture Synchronization: Homophily: The more 2 people are alike in background, attitudes,
perceptions and values the more effectively they will
communicate with each other and become more similar. When students from differing backgrounds understand the cultural norm, and the teacher and students are instep with each other. Lack of synchronization leads to misunderstandings between teachers and students that can, and often do, result in conflict, distrust, hostility, and possibly school failure. Is an Extremely important factor in the establishment of positive relationships between teachers and students First, teachers must understand that schools are culturally situated institutions. It is extremely difficult to promote values, standards and behaviors in schools that are culturally neutral. They are always influenced by some particular cultural mindset. Therefore, school and classroom rules and guidelines must be seen as culturally derived. Second, teachers should strive to learn more about the cultural backgrounds of the students they teach. This can be accomplished talking to students about their behavior and by allowing them to teach about cultural differences. "Students are less likely to fail in school settings where they feel positive about both their own culture and are not alienated from their own cultural values" (Cummins,1986) Misbehavior that results from differences in cultural background and expectations, should be handled quite differently from misbehavior that signifies intentional disruption on part of the student. Creating Group Standards to Structure Appropriate Behavior Forming Skills: Fermenting Skills: Functioning Skills: Formulating Skills: 4 sets of skills have been identified that students need to develop over time in order to function successfully, group standards develop to lead students to (1) Be engaged in learning activities, (2) strive toward learning and achievement, and (3) interact with each other in ways that will facilitate the development of positive self-esteem. Initial set of management skills that are helpful for getting in groups effectively and encourage to participate Group management skills aims at controlling the types of interactions that occur among group members. Considered the "support" skills, focusing on task, expressing support etc... Helps students to process material mentally. Skills include summarizing, connecting ideas, seeking elaboration. "analyzing and applying" skills. Resolves cognitive conflicts, skills include criticizing without harm, synthesizing diverse ideas, extending ideas and probing for information C.onsider A.ct L.essen M.anage Summary When they are well designed, rules and routines provide students with clear expectations.
The teacher can increase the effectiveness of rules and routines by...
1- Analyzing the classroom environment to determine what is needed to protect teaching, earning, overall safety, and property.
2- Communicating the rules the routines and their rationales to students.
3- Obtaining student commitments to abide by the rules.
4- Teaching and evaluating student understanding of the rules.
5- Enforcing each rule and routine with natural or logical consequences. When teachers and students hold differing values, standards, and behavioral expectations, the potential for misunderstanding, conflict, and mistrust is greatly enhanced. In Closing... When the culture of the school and the culture of the students are synchronized, positive behavior increases and positive relationships are established between teachers and students! HOWEVER Can You Find The Balance?! Activity! Design the "Perfect" or most effective classroom environment in accordance to the situation you have been assigned. Be prepared to explain why you feel this way! :) 1) Science class, Grade 8
2) English Class, Grade 10
3) Social Class, Grade 12
4) Art Class, Grade 11 Activity Three For the following scenario, explain why the student behaved as he or she did Justin, a Jamaican-born grade 1 student, continually sings along and talks along with his teacher, Ms. Gray, when she is telling stories to the class. Ms. Gray finds Justin's behavior rude. Part Three 1) Cultural Embeddedness of Rules and Routines
3) Creating Group Standards to Structure Appropriate Behavior ( 4 steps)
5) Closure Activity Two With your group, brainstorm natural consequences and appropriate punishments.