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photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Mountain Building & Fossils
How has the Earth changed?!
Whats in the earth?
- Draw a diagram of the earth indicating location, thickness and temperature of the layers

- Draw a diagram of a simple seismograph and explain how it works.

- Richter Scale

- Locating the epicentre of an earthquake

- Explain how seismic evidence (P, S and L waves – Primary, Secondary, Late) supports the theory of the structure of the earth
Theory of Plates & Boundaries
- Explain that the Earth’s crust is made up of moving plates that float on the mantle (diagram).

- Explain, draw and give examples of the four ways in which the edges of the plates move (relate to mountain building):
(i)sliding edge – eg San Andreas fault
(ii)subduction zone – eg west coast of South America
(iii) collision zones – eg Himalayas
(iv) spreading zones – eg mid-oceanic ridges
Natural features from Plate Techtonics
- With the aid of diagrams, describe how crustal plate movement causes mountain building, volcanoes and earthquakes.

- Show convection currents

Describe (diagrams) the processes by which geological landforms occur:
(i) Folding and (ii) Faulting.
(anticline, syncline, normal fault, reverse fault).
The Summary!
Page 1 Summary

How many layers does the earth have?
What is the temperature in the mantle?
Where would you find the layer with the highest density?
What is the trend in temperature as you move down from the crust?

How do you think they know where 1 layer ends, and the next begins?

If you were to draw a graph of the temperature of the earth as you move down through the layers, identify what would go on the x and y axis

How is the core similar to the mantle?
Distinguish between the inner and outer core

What would happen if the outer core got hotter?

Page 2 & 3 Summary

How many stations are needed to identify the magnitude and epicentre of an earthquake?
What is a seismogram?
Name the three types of waves associated with an earthquake

How has technology made information easier to access?
Why does an S wave arrive after a P wave?
How would the seismograms from the Japanese earthquake in 2010 differ from yours?

If 6 stations recorded an earthquake, what advantage would there be in using them all?
How would you know if 1 earthquake was a higher magnitude than another?
How could you demonstrate triangulation in the playground?

What is the difference between an S and P wave?
As you move further from an earthquakes epicentre, how does the graph change?

Why bother recording the epicentre and magnitude of earthquakes?
Should Australia spend taxpayers money on recording stations when we don’t get serious earthquakes very often?

Design a building that can withstand an earthquake. Think about which way the waves make it move and design accordingly!
Using fossils as proof!
- A fossil as the remains or imprints of a plant or animal from the past.

- Discuss different methods of fossil formation:
unaltered remains eg mammoth in ice, insect in amber
altered remains eg mineral replacement, fossilised dinosaur skeletons.
casts
moulds
indirect evidence eg ripple marks and the conditions required eg quick burial.

- Describe how fossils especially index fossils can be used to determine geological age, previous environment and changes in sea level etc.

- Geological correlation exercises

- Examine a Geological Time Scale. Note a gradual change through time from simple to more complex organisms

- Recall the following times (all approximate):
Age of Earth – about 4600m years (see AGSO Time & Life)
Life forms – first appeared about 600m years ago
Dinosaurs – appeared about 200m years ago, disappeared
about 70m years ago (AS3 pp126-127)
Man – appeared about 1 million years ago
Natural events from
Plate Tectonics
- Define atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere

- State that volcanoes and earthquakes are mostly found in “active” areas eg Mid-oceanic ridges, subduction zones, Hot spots, “Pacific Ring of Fire”.

- Using examples describe the effects caused by an active volcano – gas, volcanic ash, lava flows etc.
eg Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Mt St Helens.

- Identify remains of extinct volcanoes in Australia.

- A cyclone as a destructive storm caused by winds rotating around a low pressure system.
Examples including Cyclone Tracey
Key Words!
The Earth
Page 1
Crust
Mantle
Inner Core
Outer Core

Page 2
Earthquake
Seismograph
Seismogram
Epicentre

Page 3
Primary Wave
Secondary Wave

Plate Tectonics
Page 4
Subduction
Sliding
Collision
Spreading
Volcano

Page 5
Focus
Your Task!
Our changing earth!
The Earth
Earths Features
Natural Events
Geological History
Summary
Key Words
Plate Tectonics
Interactives: Dynamic Earth
http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html
Real time earthquakes
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/
Australian Earthquakes
http://www.ga.gov.au/earthquakes/index.jsp
Your Task!
1) Create a new OneNote Page called "Earth's Layers"

2) Using resource #1 "Earths Structure":
i - Copy the image (left) from
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jordens_inre-numbers.svg> and clearly label each of the layers
ii - Holding your mouse over each layer reveals new information. Write this information beside your label (no screen shots, type it out!). You should have 6 labels/information

3) Go to resource #4 "Science up Close" and read the information for each layer. Complete the mini-test and take a screen shot when you get 4/4 correct!

4) Write a summary on the structure of earth! (Write the main ideas and several short dot points about them)

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
Science up Close
http://www.mentormob.com/learn/i/unit-1-inside-earth/layers-of-the-earth-interactive
Resource #1
Resource #2
Resource #3
Resource #4
OneNote Page 1: Earth's Layers
To complete this work, you will need:
- working laptop every lesson
- internet connection
- electronic copy of Science Focus 3
How to complete this work!

1) It is set out sequentially (in order) - make sure you follow the correct order

2) You need to read each section and complete the activity in OneNone

3) A "resource" can be found to the right of the "earth"

4) Ensure you complete all 5 theory circles, 1 summary circle and 1 key word circle!
OneNote Page 3: Seismology
Your task:
1) Using Science Focus 3 page 136-138 "Surface Waves" & "Measuring Earthquakes"
2) Answer questions 10-12 page 139
3) Answer questions 20-22, 27 page 140
4) Use Resource #3:
i) Click "Earthquake Activity" then "Recent Earthquakes"
ii) Refine the search to last 30 days
iii) Take a screen shot of the map
iv) Find the closest earthquake to Albury, click on it, then click "View Details"
v) Create a sub-heading "Recent Earthquakes in Australia" and then find the following information:
- Date and time of earthquake
- Epicentre location (use lat & long if not near a town/city)
- Distance from Albury
- Distance from the nearest capital city
- Magnitude
Click "seismograms and data" and find:
- location of the three stations used to detect its location and their distance to the epicentre
- click on 1 station (yellow triangle) and click "view seismogram"
- take a screen shot of ONE of the three seismograms
- answer these questions:
1) Explain why there are 3 seismograms
2) Explain why three stations are necessary
3) Label the earthquake on your seismogram
4) How long is that seismogram in minutes?
5) How long is the earthquake?
6) What information is on the vertical axis of the graph?

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
WARNING!
Plagiarism will definitely not be tolerated. If you copy an image from a website - include the website.

Any question that you answer must be in your own words - if you are caught copying and pasting from the internet you will be punished.

If you are unsure how to re-write sentences firstly read, cover and write down what you remember. If you are still struggling, ask me for help!
Your task:
1) Use Science Focus 3, read pages 134-136 "Focus and Epicentre", "Seismic Waves", "Body Waves", "Earthquake shadows" and "Finding the Epicentre"
2) Answer questions 1-9 page 139
3) Answer questions 17-19, 26 page 140
4) Use Resource #6 and complete the activities. You need to take 3 screen shots as evidence of completion:
i) Accurate location of the epicentre (note: accurate)
ii) Accurate calculation of the magnitude
iii) Certificate of completion (with your name!)

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
OneNote Page 2: P, S & L Waves
Your task:
1) Use Science Focus 3 read pages 122-123 "Floating Plates"
2) Answer questions 5-8, 10, 12 page 123
3) Use Science Focus 3 read pages 127-130 "Plate Boundaries", "A broken scab: spreading plates", "Going under; subduction zones" and "Plates that scrape"
4) Use Resource #5 to complete the worksheet "Plate Tectonics Inquiry" (it has been emailed to you!)
5) Answer the following questions:
i) Use google images to find an unlabelled image of a sliding edge, subduction zone, collision zone and spreading zone. (you may need to research where you would find one!) Copy each image into OneNote and beside each one EXPLAIN what is occuring. (Include all key words you have learnt so far in each explanation. Ensure they are written individually - dont just change words between the explanations!)
ii) Use google maps to find an example of each of these plate boundaries. Take a screen shot showing the boundary and the nearest countries, and place it next to the images from the last question. Name both plates.
iii) You should now have 2 images for each boundary. On each one label the two plates with the term "more dense" or "less dense" and an arrow showing which way the plates are moving (at some boundaries only 1 plate is moving, in others both plates are moving)

4) Use Resource #2 to complete tab "Slip, SLide & Collide". Take a screen shot of your test resutt when you have achieved a minimum of 8/10!

Finished? Time to update your key word cards!
Resource #5
Phet Plate Motion
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/plate-tectonics
Resource #6
Virtual Earthquake
http://www.sciencecourseware.com/virtualearthquake/php/Seismograms.php
OneNote page 4: Plate Boundaries
OneNote Page 5: Proof of Plate Tectonics
Your task:

1) Use Science Focus 3 read pages 120-122
2) Answer questions 1-4 page 123
3) Use resource #7 to answer the following questions:
i) identify the depth range for shallow, intermediate and deep focus earthquakes
ii) in figure 7, identify an area which has a higher occurance of shallow, intermediate and deep focus earthquakes
iii) explain why deep-focus earthquakes are associated with subduction plate boundaries
4) Summarise what evidence there is to support the theory of plate tectonics

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
Resource #7
Lab Space
http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=416333
OneNote Page 6: Landforms
Plate boundaries can explain deep ocean trenches, shallow valleys and large montain ranges. There are other forces responsible for producing smaller changes to our country, such as the hills around Albury!

1)Use Resource #8 to answer these questions:
i) "1 Stress" Define the terms stress, tension, compression & shearing
ii) "2 Deformation" Define "Elastic Deformation" and take a screen shot of it occuring. Repeat for Brittle and ductile deformation.
iii) Skip "3", go to "4 Folds". Take a screen shot of the 4 types of "folding". Briefly (2-3 sentences) explain what is occuring in these images
iv) Go to "5 Brittle Deformation". Take a screen shot of a "normal fault" and "reverse fault". Briefly explain what is happening in each situation.
v) Use"6" and the "model" section to review how land can change over time.
vi) Use google images to find 3 different photos of folding, and 3 more of faulting. You need to explain what your photo shows. (Include labels on your diagrams: for folding use anticline, syncline, force arrows and for faulting use: foot wall, hanging wall and force arrows)

2) Use Science Focus 3 answer question 17-18 (take a screen shot to help explain q17)


Extension
Use the following link to find how the mountain range south of Wodonga (Mount Buffalo, Hotham etc) was formed
http://vro.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/landform_geomorphological_framework_1.1.1

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
Resource #8
Faults & Folds
http://ees.as.uky.edu/sites/default/files/elearning/module10swf.swf
OneNote Page 7: Natural Disasters!
Your task:
1) Research and define the words atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Find 1 photo that relates to each definition.
2) Complete the worksheet "Investigating Earths Crustal Plates" in OneNote. You will need to find a map of earthquakes and volcanoes in google images to help you answer the questions.
3) Research what the "Pacific Ring of Fire" is
4) Research what a caldera and shield volcano is
5) Research what a "scoria cone" volcano is
6) Research and write 1 paragraph which summarises what a "cyclone" is (include how they are started)

Extension:
Research Mount Warning in NSW - a dorman shield volcano.
Research Lake Rotorua, New Zealand - a dormant caldera volcano
Include information about these volcanoes, as well as a photo, in your notes!

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
Resource #9
Animated guide to volcanoes
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7533964.stm
OneNote Page 8: Volcanoes
Your task:
1) Use Resource #9 to answer the following questions:
i) How far do tectonic plates move annually?
ii) Volcanoes are found near what type of plate boundary?
iii) What is a stratovolcano? Find 1 image of "Eyjafjallajökull" - a volcano located in Iceland which last erupted in 2010!
iv) Using slide 8, identify the deadly effects of a volcano
v) Find a news report from 2010 and identify what effects "Eyjafjallajökull" had on the human population (include the website URL in your answer)

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
OneNote Page 10: Neotectonic Activity
Your task:
1) Use resource #10 to answer the following questions:
i) What causes earthquakes & volcanoes when they are not near a plate boundary?
ii) Take a screen shot of the map and include in your OneNote
iii) Make a general statement about where neotectonic features are found in Australia.
iv) Make a general statement about where neotectonic features are found in victoria
Click "Within a broad region", select "NSW" then "Search"
v) Using the table find what causes all neotectonic activity in NSW
vi) Find the feature with the greatest displacement
Click on this location
vii) Identify the type of fault
Click on "Images" and download Khancoban1.jpg and Khancoban2.jpg. Insert these into your one note page.
viii) How do these two photos show that this is a fault line?

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
Resource #10
Australian Neotectonic Features
http://www.ga.gov.au/earthquakes/staticPageController.do?page=neotectonics
OneNote Page 9: Australian Volcanoes
The area between Geelong and Adelaide contains the largest number of extinct volcanoes in Australia.

1) Using google maps - make a map from Geelong to Adelaide, take a screen shot and include this in your OneNote
Use the following website:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_volcanoes_in_Australia
Clicking on the following volcanoes (in the table) to reveal more information to answer question 2, look at:
- Mount Elephant
- Mount Eccles
- Mount Leura
- Tower Hill
- Mount Warrnambool
- Mount Noorat
- Mount Schank
- Mount Gambier
- 2 others of your choice!

2) Make a table with the following colums: name, nearest town, height, last eruption and type of volcano. Fill it in with information from the above volcanoes!

3) Use Science Focus 3 read "Moving volcano" page 151 and "Treasure from below" page 152

4) Answer questions 8, 10 and 11 page 152


Extension!

Download the following pdf:
http://www.mghs.sa.edu.au/internet/curriculum/science/Year9/Resources/Rocks/mountGambierMountSchankVolcanoComplex.pdf

Imagine I was going to organise an excursion for our class to this area. Make a list of places we should visit (with a reason why). Remember to keep kids interested we should visit several different types of volcanoes and see different types of evidence.

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
OneNote Page 11: Making Fossils
Resource #11
ABC Science
http://www.abc.net.au/beasts/fossilfun/
Your task:
1) Use resource #11 to answer the following questions:
Click "Burying Bodies"
i) What is a fossil?
ii) What conditions are needed to turn a body into a fossil?
iii) In this example, where is the most likely location to turn the beast into a fossil? Why?

Click "Making Fossils"
First circle: Outline the steps needed to make a fossil
Second circle: Outline the steps needed to make a cast mould
Third circle: What problem prevented a fossil being created?
Fourth circle: What is an example of a trace fossil?
Fifth circle:What problem prevented a fossil being created?
Sixth circle: How is the mammoth preserved?
Seventh circle: What problem prevented a fossil being created?
Summary:
i) The types of fossils are:
ii) Some problems making fossils are:
iii) The best fossil is preserved by:

Click "Skeleton Jigsaws"
i) Take a screen shot of your fastest time for all 4 levels of difficulty

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
OneNote Page 13: Earth's Timeline
Your task:
Use Resource #12 to answer these questions
Click "Geology Calendar"
1) If the Earth's History was condensed into 1 year, what date (use format 17th March etc):
i) Did the Early Precambrian age end
ii) Did the Late Precambrian age end
iii) Did the Paleozoic age end
iv) Did the mesozoic age end
v) Did the cenozoic age end
vi) Would you first find a human?
vii) Would you find the first living thing?
viii) Would you first find amphibians?
2) How have animals changed over time? (Compare the first living things to humans now)
3) In what age were all the continents on earth joined together? How many years ago was this?

Click "Fossil Match Up"
4) Complete the game. Take a screen shot when you have finished!

Finished? Time to update your key word cards!
OneNote Page 12: Index Fossils
Your task:
Use Resource #12 to answer these questions:
1) How long ago:
i) was earth formed?
ii) did the first life appear?
iii) did dinosaurs appear?
iv) did dinosaurs disappear?
v) did man first appear?
vi) did first fish appear?

But, How do we know this? Once we know when 1 species lived,
any of its fossils indicate that the rock must be that age too. Any other fossil in that rock would be that age too! We call a fossil that we know an INDEX fossil.

2) Use Science Focus 3 read 156-158

3) Answer questions 1-5, 8-10, 15 page 159

Finished? Time to update your key word cards & answer the summary questions!
Resource #12
Prehistoric Timeline
http://science.nationalgeographic.com.au/science/prehistoric-world/prehistoric-time-line/
Earth's Features
Page 6
Stress
Elastic
Fold
Fault
Anticline
Syncline

Natural Events
Page 7
Atmosphere
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Page 8
Page 9

Page 10
Neotectonic

Geological History
Page 11
Fossil
Cast
Mould

Page 12
Index fossil

Page 13
Dinosaur
Precambrian
Paleozoic
Mesozoic
Cenozoic
Trilobite
To help you study this topic, you need to make study cards for these key words. As you complete each page, complete the study cards!

The study cards need to be made at:
www.quizlet.com
(You will need to create a free account)
Page 7-10

Name 3 extinct Australian volcanoes
Which “sphere” contains all living things?
Name 1 country on the “Pacific Ring of Fire”
How far do tectonic plates move annually?
Which state of Australia contains the most volcanic history?

Since you were born, how far has the Australasian plate moved?
Volcanoes occur near what time of plate boundary?

Compare a shield and scoria cone volcano
What evidence is there for neotectonic activity in Victoria?

Why didn’t Australian volcanoes erupt in huge explosions

If the table top mountain range erupted as a volcano (not likely!) what effect would that have on Albury?

Page 11-13

Name three “ages”
In what age were all the continents joined together?

If you found a human body fossilised in the same rock as a dinosaur, what does that tell you?
Explain THREE different ways a fossil might be formed
Explain what an index fossil is used for?

Where is the most likely place to find fossils around our area?

What problems prevent fossils being formed?
What conditions are needed to overcome these problems?

Do you think humans should care about fossils? Why or why not?
Page 4 & 5 Summary

Name the four types of plate boundaries
Is continental or oceanic crust thicker?

What is one example of a sliding edge plate boundary?

Name 1 country we are moving toward on the Australasian plate

Why do oceanic plates subduct below continental plates?
Does the depth of an earthquake affect the effect it has on Earth?
What type of plate boundary would have shallow focus earthquakes?
What occurs when volcanoes erupt underwater?

Explain 1 piece of evidence which conflicts with the theory of plate tectonics
Explain if this statement is true: eventually all tectonic plates will be created from new magma
If Australia was to build 6 seismic stations, where would you place them and why?


Page 6 Summary

Name two “f” words which can cause landforms to change
What do the terms “stress” and “shearing” mean?

Change this sentence so that it is correct “A rock which is elastically deformed under heat will permanently remain in its new shape”

Compare folding and faulting
Why is a hanging wall called that and not a foot wall?

What data or evidence would you need to collect to prove Monument hill is caused by folding?
Compare a normal and reverse fault
What is the difference between anticline & syncline?
If the foot wall moves down relative to the hanging wall, is it a normal or reverse fault?

Would you prefer to build a house on a fold or a fault? Why?

Create a story for how a mammoth fossil could end up on a Sydney beach!
Full transcript