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Chapter 3.1 States of Matter
Transcript of Chapter 3.1 States of Matter
Grade 8 Physical Science
Matter exists in three (3) states, or what some scientists call "phases" but you'll learn more about that when you take physics and stuff. Technically, there is a fourth state, plasma, but that's for a later chapter.
Remember, the three states are physical properties of matter--changing matter from one state to another does not change that matter into a new substance, and it does not change its properties.
So, you want to know more about States of Matter? Good thing you have a Science teacher like Old Man Thaggard.
For now, there are just two types of solids to worry about:
The first state we'll talk about is the solid state, which is when matter has a definite shape and a definite amount of volume--that is, a solid's shape and volume won't change (unless you do something to it).
#1--A Crystalline Solid is the type you're probably most familiar, because this solid has molecules and atoms that are very rigidly packed and don't move, so your solid is going to be pretty rigid. This is because of the crystal-shaped pattern of the molecules and atoms in the matter.
#2--An Amorphous solid is the second type and you are already familiar with them, even if you don't know the name. In an amorphous solid, the molecules are still very tightly packed, but don't have that same rigid pattern that make up crystalline solids. Because of the irregular pattern, the molecules can shift around and move a bit.
Like solids, liquids (or fluids) have a definite volume, but not a definite shape. The molecules in a liquid do not have any sort of pattern and are very flexible--so flexible, in fact, that they can move past (and around and over and by and under) each other very easily.
Liquids are another state of matter, and you are already super familiar with this state.
Viscosity is one property of a liquid, and it refers to how easily a liquid moves, or flows. Something with high viscosity has a high resistance to flow, or doesn't like to move much at all. A liquid with low viscosity would have a low resistance to movement, and would flow very easily.
Gases do not have a definite volume or shape--in fact, the molecules and atoms inside a gas don't really like each other at all. Particles in a gas are constantly moving around and bouncing off each other or the container that they're in. The number of atoms and molecules in a gas is a lot smaller than a solid or liquid, so you could even say that gases are usually much less dense than solids or liquids.
Gases are the third state of matter, and one of the most important because we depend on gases to live.