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What do you know about Parkinson's disease?

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Angela Raymond

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of What do you know about Parkinson's disease?

1. Parkinson's disease can be diagnosed with a blood test.

2.Memory loss and trouble thinking are early warning signs Parkinson's.

3. Parkinson's disease is untreatable.

4. Environment can have an impact on Parkinson's disease onset.

5. Parkinson's disease usually develops later in life.

6. Women are more likely then men to suffer from Parkinson's. (6 )
What is Parkinson's disease?
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, degenerative neurological disorder that affects one in 100 people over age 60. ( 5)
Parkinson's Disease

Angela Raymond

BIO 160

GRCC 2014
Parkinson's Disease
What do you know about Parkinson's disease?
Lets take a quiz!
Did you answer correctly?
1. False
2. False
3. False
4. True
5. True
6. False (6 )
The brain cells (neurons) that produce dopamine are concentrated in the area of the brain called substantia nigra.

Dopamine is the chemical messenger between the substantia nigra and other parts of the brain that control movements of the body. (6)
Answer True or False to the following statements.
There is no cure for Parkinson's disease and while PD it self is not fatal, it is the 14th leading cause of death in U.S. from complications caused by the disease. (6 )
Dopamine is the chemical that helps humans have smooth coordinated mucsle movement.
PD causes damage to 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells in the brain which is what causes the motor symptoms of PD to appear. (6)
Braak's hypothesis
The earliest signs of Parkinson's are found in the enteric nervous system, the medulla and in particular, olfactory bulb, which controls your sense of smell. (6)
Braak's stages of
Parkinson's Disease
Braak's theory is that loss of smell, hyposomia, sleep disorders, constipation precede the loss of motor features by several years. (6 )
With this information researchers are focusing more on the "non-motor symptoms to detect and Parkinson's disease as early as possible and to look for ways to stop its progression. ( 6)
What are the symptoms of
Parkinson's disease?
Non-motor symptoms:
sleep disturbances
increase in dandruff (6)
Four main motor symptoms:
shaking or tremors
slowness of movement
stiffness or rigidity of arms, legs or trunk
postural instability
Secondary symptoms of PD:
decrease ability in automatic reflexes, blinking and swallowing
low voice volume
loss of facial expression due to rigidity of facial muscles
shuffled walk
The olfactory bulb controls the sense of smell.
There is no objective test, or "biomarker", for Parkinson's disease. (5)

Recent research indicates that at least one million people in the United States, and more than five million world wide, heave Parkinson's disease. (5)
An English doctor, James Parkinson was the first to characterize the disease in 1817.
The exact cause of Parkinson's disease has not yet been identified, research points to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (5)
Genetic Causes
In the past 10 years, researchers have identified a number of rare instances where Parkinson's disease appears to be caused by a single genetic mutation.

Research has discovered a mutated gene that is passed from generation to generation, which increases the cases of Parkinson's disease within an extended family.

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the greatest genetic contributor to PD discovered to date. (5)
Scientist believe that most cases of PD are a combination of genetic and environmental factors which play a role in causing Parkinson's disease.
What is LRRK2?
Discovered in 2004, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the greatest known genetic contributor to Parkinson's disease. (5)
The medication carbidopa-levodopa is the most effetive Parkinsn's disease medication, is a natural chemical that passes into the brain and is converted to dopamine. (5)
Dopamine is critical to motor movements.
4. Mayo Clinic (2014) Parkinson's disease Treatments and Drugs.
Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site:
6. Retrieved from the National Parkinson Foundation Web site:
5. (n.d.) What Causes Parkinson's disease?
Retrieved from Web site:
https://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php? causes

1. (n.d.) American Parkinson's disease Association. Retrieved from Web site:
2. Cherney, K. (2013, September).
What's the Life Expectancy for Parkinson's Disease? Retrieved June 4, 2014 from Web site:
3. McCoy, K. (n.d.). Recognizing the Progression of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms. Retreived from Web site:
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