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Big Picture Geographically: Europe
Transcript of Big Picture Geographically: Europe
Unit 6 (38)
THE COMMONWEALTH OF BYZANTIUM
In later Roman Empire and Byzantium the eastern empire remained intact while the west crumbled in the 5th century.
Justinian and Theodora headed byzantine empire.
Just.’s Code: (Corpus iuris civilis): (Body of the Civil Law): Codification of Roman Law.
Reconquered the Western Roman Empire from Germanic peoples
Both absolute rulers
Refined law and built Hagia Sophia
Known for trade and crafts
Strongest when it had its peasant class (thebes)
Economy got weaker as landlords began gaining more and more land
making Thebes dependent
Higher Greek education was in Constantinople (law, medicine, philosophy).
Byzantine scholars emphasized Greek tradition.
Byzantine church was monotheistic
Tension between Eastern and Western Christianity
Schism in 1054 Eastern Orthodox vs. Roman Catholic "Great Schism"
Foreign pressure on Byzantine. Crusaders sacked Constantinople (1204).
Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 (end of Byzantine Empire).
Fall of Byzantine
About 2 million years ago, Homo erectus groups migrate to Europe, S. Asia, E. Asia, and SE Asia.
Neandertal people (Homo neandertalensis) flourish in Europe and southwest Asia 200,000-35,000 years ago
6000 BCE- agriculture spreads from SW Asia to Mediterranean and Balkan region
Early Societies in Southwest Asia
and the Indo-European Migrations
Phoenicians dominate Mediterranean trade from 1200-800 BCE, est. commercial colonies
• Indo-Europeans originated from Ukraine and southern Russia between 4500-2500 BCE
- Domesticated horses (4000 BCE), used as food, to carry cars, wagons, chariots (3000 BCE) , and served as a great military advantage
• Indo-Europeans migrate west
- All do not build cities or industrialize: pastoral and agricultural economy
Indo-Europeans all speak related languages and worship similar deities
Hitties: quite influential with close relations with Mesopotamian peoples
Major Events of the Cold war
Western European Bloc was controlled by the
The Eastern European Bloc was controlled by the
The European blocs were separated by an
____________ was established by 51 nations committed to preserving peace in 1945.
The Cold War begins. It was a long period of tension between the two superpowers.
___________ Doctrine is created which is a policy dedicated to the containment of
The U.S. government developed the
___________ Plan to help the European economy recover
The Soviet Union's response to the
_____________ Plan was COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and it offered increased
_______ within the Soviet Union and E. Europe.
The U.S. sponsored NATO is a millitary alliance against Soviet aggression and it's purpose was to maintain peace in postwar
The Soviet Union created the
_________ ________ in response to NATO.
NATO and the Warsaw pact signaled the
______________ of the cold war.
Berlin Blockade: Eastern Germany was controlled by the Soviet Union and they wanted complete control of Germany so they firgured that if they cut off
____________ _____________ from their external supplies then it will fall in their contrl
Berlin Airlifts: Americans and the
_____________ supplied West Berlin with supplies
Nuclear weapons are developed and therefore the two superpowers acquire MAD (mutually assured destruction)
Cuban Missile Crises:The Soviets had
__________ in Cuba and when the U.S. found out, Kennedy demanded them to be removed and in addtion, he placed and air and naval
_____________ on Cuba. Consequently, Nikita Krushcheve removed then missiles as long as the U.S. promised not to invade Cuba.
China becomes a communist nation.
Korean War: It resulted in a military stalemate and the country remained divided after the War.
Cold War ends
Italy after the Great War- economy never recovered
Germany: deep resentment at Treaty of Versailles
The Munich Conference
Russian-German Treaty of Non-Aggression-shocking
World War II
Germany conquers Europe- “lightening war"
Soviet Union= Operation Barbarossa (Blitzkrieg strategies less effective in Russia)
The battle of Britain-Germans' strategy to defeat Britain solely through air attack
The Marshall Plan
Africans challenged European colonial authority
Unit 6 (37)
World War I
The Central Powers
Austrian Archduke assassinated by Serbian nationalist
Causes: Nationalism, Tangled Alliances
The Paris Peace Conference & Treaty of Versailles
Great War weakened Europe, set the stage for decolonization after World War II
imperialism (Direct rule; Indirect rule)
-European merchants and entrepreneurs made personal fortunes
-harbors and supply stations for industrial nations
The map of Europe changed significantly after the War
Unit 6 (34)
After war, European intellectuals qustioned and challenged established traditions
Albert Einstein's theory of relativity
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
Pablo Picasso sought freedom of expression
The Great Depression
Germany and Austria borrowed money from United States, used it to pay reparations to Allies, who used the money to pay war debt to United States
Postwar agriculture depressed in Europe
John M. Keynes challenged classical economic theory
Started in Italy, then Germany
Italian fascism: Mussolini
Germany's national socialism
Unit 6 (35)
Achaemenid Empire or the first Persian empire founded in the 6th century by Cyrus the Great reigned (558-530)
Indo European shared cultural traits with Aryans
Darius reigned(521-486) ruled the empire to its peak
Government formed with ‘satraps’ was created by military officers and ‘imperial spies’. Postal station and Persian royal railroad was their source of communication
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the catalyst that started World War I because
A) he was a unifying force between Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
B) his death caused Russia to rush to the defense of Austria.
C) his death caused Germany to rush to the defense of Serbia.
D) his death ended plans for national self-determination within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
E) his death brought to a head the tensions underlying the alliances in eastern and western Europe.
Formation of Classical Societies
Persian wars (500-479)
Occured by people restless under "tyrants"
Ionian Greeks rebelled and Persian rulers failed to put it down.
Alexander of Macedon invaded Persia 334 BCE
Battle of Gaugamela (End of Achaemenid Empire). Seleucid inherited most of Achaemenid after Alexander died
Zoroastrianism grew from sixth century popular in Iran; Mesopotamia, Anatolia etc( ch7)
Formation of Classical Societies p.2
Minoan and Mycenaean societies arose
Indo-european immigrants settled in Greece, over powered Minoan society
Greece started to have polis (Sparta,Athens)
The Delian war.
Rational thought and philosophy (Socrates, etc)
Roman republic. Rome nobility deposed last Etruscan king. Republican was constituted with two consuls;civil and military
Julius Caesar seizes Rome (49). Pax romana. Judaism. Christianity (Jesus of Nazareth)
(ch 12 roman empire falls) Internal decay, Germanic invasion, cultural change)
Formation of Classical Societies p.3
• Germanic Kingdoms
-Angles, Saxons->English Channel (established regional kingdoms in Britain.)
• Fall of the Western Roman Empire 476 CE
• R. of Clovis (Franks): (481-511CE).
-Converted to Roman Christianity
• R. of Pope Gregory I: (590-604CE).
-Reasserted papal primacy-the bishop of Rome was the ultimate authority of the Christian Church.
• Carolingian Kingdom: (751-843CE).
-Charles Martel (“Charles the Hammer’) founder.
-Grandfather of Charlemagne.
R. of Charlemagne: (768-814CE).
-Temporarily reestablished centralized imperial rule.
-Biggest accomplishment: building the Carolingian empire.
-Established court, and capital in Aachen: spent most of his time traveling through his realm.
-Relied on aristocratic deputies: counts: held political, military, & legal authority in local jurisdictions.
-Instituted a group of imp. officers: missi dominici (“envoys of the lord ruler’): traveled every year to all local jurisdictions & reviewed the accounts of local authorities.
- Louis the Pious (814-840): Agreed to divide the kingdom into three parts. Carolingian empire dissolves.
-Sometimes promoted Christianity by military force.
• R. of King Otto of Saxony: (936-973CE).
-German king: Successful in preventing invasions by the Mygars.
• Norse Expansion: Vikings invade in the 790s.
• (955CE):Battle of Lechfield
• Monasticism: originated in Egypt, spread in Italy, Spain, Gaul, British Isles, and in the Mediterranean region.
-Monastic communities developed its own rules, procedures, and priorities.
Foundations of Christian Society
Foundations of Christian Society p.2
• Feudalism: the political and social order of medieval Europe.
• Lords & Retainers
- In exchange of grants, retainers owed loyalty and military service to their lords.
• Serfs & Manors
-Worked agricultural tasks, owed obligations to the lords whose lands they cultivated.
• Heavy Plows: farming tool used in the Carolingian era; was hitched to oxen. (Increased agricultural production).
• Mediterranean trade: Christian Merchants from Italy and Spain traded w/ Muslims of Sicily, Spain and North Africa.
• Osman-founds the Ottoman Empire1299
• 1350’s-Ottomans gained advantages over Turkish rivals, expanded to Balkans.
• 1380’s-Became by far the most powerful people on the Balkan Peninsula (Captured Constantinople, took over the Byzantine Empire.)
• 1440’s Began to expand in the Byzantine Empire.
The Ottoman Empire
• (1287-1288)-Rabban Sauma’s embassy to Europe
• (1291-1328)-John of Montecorvino’s mission to China
• (1304-1374)-L. of Francesco Petrarca
• The Renaissance: a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries.
- Humanists: scholars interested in the humanities-literature, history, & moral phil.
• (1337-1453)-Hundred Years’ War
• Bubonic Plague (1348) Europe
- A plague sparked its epidemics in most of W. Europe, “Black Death”.
• (1466-1536)-L. of Desideirius Erasmus of Rotterdam
- a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, social critic, teacher, and theologian
• 1488-Bartolomeu Dias’s voyage around Africa
• 1492-Christopher Columbus’s first voyage to the Western Hemisphere
• (1497-1498) Vasco da Gama's voyage to India
T/F? A member of any of the bands of English workers who destroyed machinery was called a cartel. (If false, what is the right answer?)
• (1170-1221)-L. of St. Dominic
• (1182-1226)-L. of St. Francis
• New Tools & Tech.
• The Hanseatic League: an association of trading cities stretching from Novgorod to London.
• Chivalry: code of ethics and behavior considered appropriate for nobles.
• Cathedral Schools
• (1225-1274)- Life of St. Thomas Aquinas
- Taught at the University of Paris
• (1271-1295)-Marco Polo’s trip to China
• 962CE-Coronation of Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor.
• (1056-1106)-R. of King Henry IV
• (1073-1085)-R. of Pope Gregory VII
by lay rulers such as emperors.
• (1096-1099)-First Crusade
• (1152-1190)-R. of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Europe During the High Middle Ages
Europe During High Middle Ages p.2
Enlightened and revolutionary ideas (Popular sovereignty)
The French Revolution
-Financial crisis: Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General to raise new taxes
-The National Assembly
-"Liberty, equality, and fraternity" - National Assembly slogan
-The Convention replaced National Assembly
In 1807 British Parliament outlawed slave trade
In Europe and North America, campaign against slave trade became campaign to abolish slavery
Abolition in Britain in 1833, France in 1848, the United States in 1865, Brazil in 1888
Napoleon's empire: 1804, proclaimed himself emperor
The fall of Napoleon
-Forced by coalition of enemies to abdicate in 1814, exiled on Elba
-Escaped, returned to France, raised army, but was defeated by British in 1815
Women used logic of Locke to argue for women's rights
Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
Conservative leaders determined to restore old order after defeat of Napoleon
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) created a united Germany
Cavour and Garibaldi united Italy by 1870
Unit 5 1750-1914
Unit 5 b
Which of the following is false about Napoleon?
a. A flaky rectangular pastry with a sweet filling.
b. He was a ruler of Egypt
c. He was exiled to the remote island of Saint Helena
d. He conquered European nations and expanded his empire
Coal critical to the early industrialization of Britain
Demand for cheap cotton spurred mechanization of cotton industry
-John Kay= flying shuttle
James Watt's steam engine
George Stephenson- steam-powered locomotive
Railroads and steamships lowered transportation costs and created dense transportation networks
Industrialization in western Europe
Eli Whitney promoted mass production of interchangeable parts for firearms
Later (1913), Henry Ford introduced assembly line to automobile production
Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co.
Populations of Europe and America rose sharply from 1700 to 1900
By 1900, 50 percent of population of industrialized countries lived in towns
50 million Europeans migrated to North and South America
New social classes created by industrialization
Opportunities for women narrowed by industrialization
The Communist Manifesto
Economic development better in lands colonized by Europe
Beginning of Exploration
Poor kingdom of Portugal started sail since early 1200s
Europeans lured to trade without expensive Muslim interruptions
They started to consider Asian spices and African gold as necessities
Also missionary efforts caused by The New Testament
Crusades and holy wars against Muslims in early centuries
Reconquista of Spain inspired Iberian crusaders
Important People in Exploration
B. Dias: first European to sail to southern tip of Africa
Vasco Da Gama: opened direct trade to Europe and Asia
C. Columbus: landed on the Bahamas and thought it was India
J. Cook: led three expeditions
his voyages led to European understanding of ocean basins, their lands and people
Prince Henry of Portugal
Inventions to Help Exploration
Square sails and lateen sails (Mediterranean)
Magnetic Compass (Chinese)
Astrolabe (Greeks, then Arabs)
"volta do mar" (return to the sea)
strategy that used west winds
Trading Post Empire
Alfonso d'Alboquerque, sixteenth-century Portuguese commander in Indian Ocean
Seized Hormuz in 1508, Goa in 1510, and Melaka in 1511
Forced all merchant ships to purchase safe-conduct passes
Portuguese hegemony grew weak by the late sixteenth century
Formation of powerful, profitable joint-stock companies
The English East India Company, founded in 1600
The United East India Company (VOC), Dutch company founded in 1602
Both were private enterprises, enjoyed government support, little oversight
Spanish conquest of the Philippines
Manila, Spanish and Filipino residents massacred Chinese merchants by thousands
Conquest of Java by the Dutch
The Seven Year's War (1756-1763)
Outcome: British hegemony
paved way for British empire
The Ups and Downs
The Columbian Exchange
exchange of plants, food crops animals, human populations and disease pathogens
Enslaved Africans were largest group of migrants from 1500 to 1800
The Transformation of Europe
The Protestant Church
Martin Luther: 1517 German monk who posted 95 theses
Germany reformed to Lutheran Christianity and Protestant movements launched
King Henry VII allowed movements in England
In France, John Calvin
Institutes of the Christian Religion
The Thirty Year's War (1618-1648)
Holy Roman Emperor tired to force subjects back to Roman Catholic Church; most of western Europe joined the fray
most destructive conflict before 20th century
ended with the Peace of Westphalia
Charles V failed to revive Holy Roman Empire
"New Monarchs": especially England, France, Spain
marshaled resources, curbed nobility and built strong centralized regimes
Spanish Inquisition (1478): detected heresy and deterred nobles from using Protestant views politically
early capitalist society
Joint-stock companies like EEIC and VOC organized enormous commerce
Capitalism actively supported by governments, especially in England and Netherlands
Adam Smith: supporter of capitalism
Nuclear family: love in families became important
While west dropped serfdom, Russia kept it till 19th century
Council of Trent
assembly of church officials (1545-1563) to meet and reform
Society of Jesus
St. Ignatius Loyola
Jesuits: made effective missionaries
made Christianity a genuinely global religion
Religion serious meter at its peak in 16th century
(late 15th and 16th centuries)
England: constitutional monarchy
after English Civil War (1642-1649) a "Glorious Revolution" led to kings ruling with parliament
Netherlands: republic based on representative institutions
The Sun King: King Louis XIV
ruled by divine right
Built Versailles, largest building in Europe
nobles moved to Versailles; Louis could keep eye on them
Nobles had endless entertainment in exchange for the king's absolute rule
Russian tsars of Romanov dynasty
tried to remake Russia like western Europe; led tour; hacked off glorious beards
best symbol of policies: St. Petersburg (1703)
Catherine II focused more on preserving autocratic rule
science and enlightenment
The Ptolemaic universe: A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres
The Copernican universe: Nicolaus Copernicus suggested that the sun was the center of the universe, 1543
Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler "rang death bell for Ptolemaic universe"
Issac Newton (1642-1727): published
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
John Locke: all human knowledge comes from sense perceptions
Adam Smith: laws of supply and demand determine price
Montesquieu: used political science to argue for political liberty
Center of Enlightenment was France where philosophes debated issues of day
French philosophe, champion of religious liberty and individual freedom
Prolific writer; wrote some seventy volumes in life, often bitter satire
colonies in north America
Began in east coast, spread out by exploration to west coast
Early settlements suffered
North American colonies controlled by private investors; little royal backing
different than Iberian peninsulares
Spanish and Portuguese settlements
Mestizo societies emerged
Mestizo: the children of Spanish and Portuguese men and native women
Society of Brazil more thoroughly mixed: mestizos, mulattoes, zambos
Whites (peninsulares & criollos)
Mixed races (mestizos and zambos)
Africans and natives
owned the land and held the power
performed much of the manual labor
North American societies
Greater gender balance among settlers allowed marriage within their own groups
Relationships of French traders and native women generated some métis
English disdainful of interracial marriage
Silver abundant, basis of Spanish New World wealth
Two major sites of silver mining: Zacatecas (Mexico) and Potosi (Peru)
One-fifth of all silver mined went to royal Spanish treasury
Paid for Spanish military and bureaucracy
Passed on to European and then to Asian markets for luxury trade goods
Growth of slavery in Brazil
Fur trade profitable but caused disputes
Started to cultivate cash crops
African slaves replaced indentured servants in the late seventeenth century
North American Economy
In Brazil, the Portuguese had plantation society based on engenho (sugar mills)
After the native population died off, African slaves were imported after 1530 and forced to labor under brutal conditions.
Conquest of South America
There existed a "mezito class" in South America due to the low amount of men
Conquests of the Aztec Empire by Cortés and the Inca Empire by Pizarro aided by disease
Brazil given to Portugal by the Treaty of Tordesillas
Spanish Empire brought Indian empires of Mexico and Peru under royal authority
viceroy & small class of white landowners ruled over them
Indigenous peoples forced to work in mines and plantations.
Taino: first Natives to encounter Europeans
Columbus built fort of Santo Domingo, capital of the Spanish Caribbean
Taino forced to mine gold
Encomiendas: land grants to Spanish settlers with total control over local people
Brutal abuses plus smallpox decline of Taino populations
the spanish Caribbean
High death rate and low birth rate fed constant demand for more slaves
Roughly, every ton of sugar cost one human life
In the Kongo, for example, the Portuguese undermined the authority of the king and even assassinated uncooperative rulers.
Indigenous Africans sold own people
Sixteen million, able-bodied young Africans were enslaved between 1600 and 1800.
This disruption seriously impacted village and family life, especially in west Africa.
"Middle Passage": dreadful Atlantic sea journey that previously left 50% dead
Queen Nzinga of Ndongo
Kongo, Ndongo, and south Africa became European settlements with Africans as the servant class.
The Swahili city-states were seized and forced to pay tribute.
Outright conquest and settlement
Volume of Slavery
End to Slavery
Protesters such as Olaudah Equiano and economic costs of slavery ended it
Official last ship with slaves in 1867
However, slavery still exists, even today
Who were the most influential Indo-European migrants?
The Hittites. They built a powerful kingdom and established close relations with Mesopotamian people.
How did the Indo-Europeans migrate?
By horses, they began domesticating horses around 4000 B.C.E.
Who in the Achaemenid launched the Persians’ imperial venture? (Hint his conquests laid the foundation of first Persian Empire)?
Answer: Cyrus who went from minor regional king to ruler of an empire that stretched from India to the borders of Egypt.
What was the Delian League?
Answer: An alliance to discourage further Persians actions in Greece. Which Athens became the leader of the alliance because of its superior fleet, benefiting the Athenians the most.
Answer: Because the Ionian Greeks became restive under Darius’s Persian governors-”tyrants” so the Ionian cities rebelled and launched a series of conflicts.
Why did the Persian war occur?
In the 5th century who headed the Byzantine Empire? (hint! It was a couple who built the hagia sophia)
Justinian and Theodora. They refined law and built the Hagia Sophia. Constantinople was known for trade and crafts under them and was strongest economically when it had the peasant class the thebes.
Lords and retainers. Kings Nobles Knights Merchants Peasants (serfs). Multilayered lord/retainer relationships. Serfs were free peasants who traded their land for protection. Land owners became lords as they gained more land and some lords were underlings to larger more powerful lords so who do the serfs feel loyal to?
Briefly describe the feudal system. (Bonus Question! What possible problems could arise from this system?)
Clovis. Paeganism/polytheism. When he converted the citizens of his empire converted as well and gave Christianity a stronghold in Europe. Also later Pope Leo named Charlemagne emperor.
Which Frankish king converted to Roman Christianity? What religion was popular before Roman Christianity was popular?
True or False. The Mongols were ruthless thugs that made trade especially dangerous. If you went out a ruthless Mongolian man would pillage your women and jack yo gold.
The crusades didn’t reach their goal of capturing Palestine but what else did they influence?
The crusades encouraged trade with Muslims as the demand for luxury goods increased. Muslim ideas also spread into Europe. Aristotle science astronomy numerals and paper.
Question: How did WWI,WWII, and the Cold War affect Europe and its relation to the rest of the world?
Answer: The wars shattered European hegemony and by the end, European global domination had ended. Europe’s hold on it’s colonies in Africa had weakened. It’s role with the U.S. had reversed because now U.S. had become the creditor and the more wealthier one.
Question: During the war, which group challenged European colonial authority? Why? What were the results?
Answer: During the war, Africans challenged European colonial authority by staging armed revolts but colonial authorities put down all the revolts. The cause of the revolts included pan-Islamic opposition to war, anti-European and anti-Christian sentiment, and compulsory conscription of Africans. Afterward, port facilities, roads, railways, and telegraph wires.
Answer: The Balfour Declaration was when the British declared itself committed to the support of a homeland for Jews in Palestine and therefore they were compelled to allow Jewish migration to Palestine but this created problems with the Palestinian Arabs, so the British limited the migration of Jews. However, the British weren’t able to stop the problem permanently so they decided to hand over Palestine to the United Nations. Afterwards, civil war broke out and the Jews in Palestine created the independent state of Israel.
Question: What was the Balfour Declaration? What problems did it create? How did the British handle it?
Question: Which plan had helped Europe’s economy?
Answer: The Marshall Plan. The plan was successful in helping Western Europe recover economically from the WWII.
Where was the first site of interaction between European and American peoples?
B. The Caribbean
B. The Caribbean
What is the difference between Spanish/Portuguese exploration and European colonization?
The Spanish/Portuguese were more focused on exploiting the colonies for their economic value and trade. The Europeans were more focused on colonization and settling down OR their social systems were different
Land suitable for cultivation of cash crops new trade routes to Asian markets and expansion of Christianity
What the motives for European exploration?
What were the two institutions especially important for defining the Catholic Reformation and advancing its goals?
The Society of Jesus and the Council of Trent
· Spread of Christianity
· "the Columbian exchange"--diseases, plants, animals introduced from Europe (and Africa) to the Western hemisphere
What contributions did Europe make to the world over the course of time?
Who formed the National Assembly?
(not a specific person)
White man don't drop that Thun THun THun