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Migration Country Profile
Transcript of Migration Country Profile
Migration in the People's Republic of China Great Leap Forward 1958-61 150 million migrant workers 46% urban population
over 600 million Economic Reform 1978- Commune system Hukou tied to... Food rations Health care Employment Housing There was basically no migration Privatization Market economy increased productivity rural labor surplus rapid growth foreign direct investment urban labor demand Hukou untied from food, housing, employment, etc. Western Development Strategy 1.34 billion people 2025: 1 billion 91.5% Han Chinese $108 billion in 2008 $8.789 trillion in 2009 Hukou relaxed (1980s & 1990s) Questions? Challenges for migrants 1. Social services Health care
Education 2. Employment troubles Earn 25-58% compared to urban hukou Unstable jobs: 98% change jobs at least once; 2/3 over twice Often have no labor contracts Some city laws restrict which jobs migrants can take End up in informal sector Work in 3D jobs Typically work 7 days/week, average 9 hours/day Ages 20-35 Male and female Low education, few skills 61% under age 30 About 30% bring families Education Marriage By Crystal Tsai Internal May 17, 2010 Country Profile Table of Contents Background
Questions Floating population only! Hukou Household registration more options
millions of jobs
transportation development Chongqing 32 million people
8% of China GDP Xizang (Tibet) & Xinjiang Invested $ to develop provinces
Hoped more Han Chinese will move
Relaxed hukou restrictions for Han moving to those provinces Ethnic struggles
invested $ to develop region, especially infrastructure, transportation, and hydraulic projects
encouraged FDI to the region Migration & Ethnic Issues "It is just after dawn, but the sun remains hidden behind a thick haze. The giant movement of humanity that is Chongqing is about to get into full swing, working, building, consuming, discarding, developing. If today is typical, builders will lay 137,000 square metres of new floor space for residential blocks, shopping centres and factories. The economy will grow by 99 million yuan (£7m) [or $12m]. There will be 568 deaths, 813 births and the arrival of 1,370 people from the countryside."
Jonathan Watts, The Guardian, 3/15/2006
aka "Go West" policy Impact on Migration $$$ temporary residence visas Future of Migration Abolish hukou?
Extend social services to everyone?
Urban population is expected to double in the next 20 years