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Approaches to Tourism Planning and Development

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Elyssa Regine Lejano

on 20 September 2016

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Transcript of Approaches to Tourism Planning and Development

✳✱*
Approaches to Tourism Planning and Development
3. Adaptancy Platform
Adaptancy platform acknowledges that mass tourism has negative impacts but these can be minimized or avoided with “alternative tourism”, which refers to low-volume low impact forms of tourism --- the antithesis of mass tourism.
4. Knowledge – based Platform
Knowledge – based platform views tourism from a holistic perspective; not just from the impacts and forms but in terms of the underlying structures and functions.

This platform supports a critical analysis of tourism and is not inclined to labeling certain forms of tourism.
Tourism Platforms
The study of tourism has undergone shifts in focus or what is referred to as platform by Jafari (1999)

A platform - is very similar to the concept of paradigm, which is way of looking at the nature of something, identifying the issues which are most important to consider, and thinking of ways to solve those issues.
Tourism Development Theories
Advocacy Theories
Laissez Faire Theory
Modernization Theory
Trickle - down Theory
Neoliberal Theory

Cautionary Theories
Dependency Theory
Irridex Model

3. Trickle - down Theory
This theory assumes that any form of economic growth will lead to the improvement of the living conditions of all.

Related to this theory is the concept of multiplier effect, where the value of the original tourist expenditure seems to become greater as the money passes hands among the different sectors of the economy.
1. Laissez Faire Theory
Laissez Faire (French for “leave it be”) assumes that an industry, such as tourism, will function best when it is left solely to market force.

A.k.a Liberal Economic Theory, which means that the government does not intervene in terms of policy, plans, regulations, guidelines, codes or standards.
Approaches to Tourism Planning and Development
No Planning
Ad-hoc Planning
Integrated Tourism Planning
Boosterist Approach
Product-led Development
Spatial Planning Approach
Demand-led Approach
Bureaucratic/Government-led Approach
Middle Path Approach (Bhutan Model)
Environmental Approach
Ecotourism Approach
Social Approach
Participatory/Stakeholder Approach
Community-based Tourism
Pro-poor Approach
Fair Trade Tourism
Sustainable Tourism Approach

Learning Objectives

Explain the different tourism platforms;
Relate the different theories of tourism development;
Identify the key principles and strategies of sustainable tourism development; and
Compare the different approaches to tourism planning

2. Cautionary Platform
Cautionary platform views tourism as a bad thing and decries the negative effects of mass tourism.

Critics of mass tourism view tourism as creating dependency and leakages that sap the wealth of a country.

It results in loss of cultural traditions through demonstration effect, “phenomenon of local residents adopting styles and manners they have observed in visiting tourists”

5. Social Justice Platform
Social Justice platform embraces “participatory processes involving open dialogue; inclusivity, resource distribution, equity, equality, pro-poor planning; gender sensitivity; responsiveness to diversity”

Tourism planners must be conscious of their roles as “agents of social change”

1. Advocacy Platform
Advocacy platform sees tourism as a good thing and celebrates tourism’s positive impacts on the economy, the environment and the society.

“Tourism is an instrument for achieving national development” is a policy statement that reflects this platform.

Mass tourism - is the end result of this advocacy.
Two sets of what may constitute alternative tourism:

Environmentally oriented tourism - ecotourism, soft tourism, and green tourism

Socially oriented tourism - altruistic tourism, volunteer tourism, just tourism, accessible tourism, ethnic tourism, community – based tourism, responsible tourism, pro – poor tourism and fair trade tourism

2. Modernization Theory
Modernization Theory assumes that tourism contributes to the economic progress and transformation of “traditional” societies into modern ones.

However, the advocates of modernization tends to think of new as being better than old, and this can lead to the destruction of heritage – rich places or old buildings in favor of “modern” structures. Even local cultures may disappear.
4. Neoliberal Theory
This theory of development assumes that the economy functions best when there is minimal government intervention.

In context of Philippine tourism, neoliberalism would manifest in the deregulation of the airline industry and the privatization of government controlled tourism assets.

1. Dependency Theory
States that tourism can actually worsen the plight of “Third World” countries because “First World Countries exploit and siphon off the resources of the latter.

Destinations depends on foreign countries for technology, know-how, and products to satisfy the demands of international tourists. In the process, the local economy suffers from leakages in the form of repatriated income, imports, royalties and management services.
2. Irridex Theory
Doxey’s Irritation Index model is a theory about the social impacts of tourism. It states that residents’ attitudes towards tourism will deteriorate over the destination life cycle as the negative consequences of tourism intensify.

Doxey predicts that residents’ feelings will change from euphoria, apathy, annoyance and finally antagonism as tourism moves from introduction, growth, maturity, and decline stage.

1. No Planning
Planning may not be seen as necessary when the place has underdeveloped supply and demand, or when visitation rates are so small as not to perceive any impact from it. Sometimes, there may be a felt need to plan but a destination or local government unit may not have the capacity in terms of planning skills or budget to invest in tourism.
2. Ad-hoc Planning
Planning only as the need arises. Planning is done on a piecemeal basis and there is no established tourism agenda at all.
3. Integrated Tourism Planning
When tourism is developed and planned as an integrated system within itself and as part of an overall tourism plan and total development patterns in an area. This implies that tourism must be compatible with existing economic activities and the values of the local residents.
4. Boosterist Approach
Sees tourism as a positive force for economic development. Its primary goal is to maximize tourism revenues through mass tourism. The main strategies are to expand tourism physical capacity and conduct heavy international promotion campaigns. Primary indicators of success are increasing tourist arrivals and receipts on the demand side and number of hotel rooms and air seats on the supply side.

This may be a product-led or market-led, state-led, industry-led or a shared enterprise between the public and private sector.
5. Product-led Approach
“Build it and they will come”
This suggests that the key to successful tourism program is to provide infrastructure, facilities, and amenities to the tourists. Theoretically, this may not be true if the target market chosen happens to be indifferent to a particular attraction. A practical way to do this is to conduct tourism resource inventory and match each resources with potential markets (product-market matching).
6. Spatial Planning Approach
Is a type of product-led tourism, but on a wider scale. It is focused on “destination layout and design” and breaks down tourism into spatial units such as gateways, communities, access routes, attraction complexes identifies three spatial units in tourism: Site Scale, Destination Scale and Regional Scale
Another way to classify spatial units are provided by the Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Department of Tourism

Tourist Site
Tourism Development Area
Tourism Cluster


Gunn (1988) - is the first guru on spatial tourism planning. He suggested that “clustering is superior to dispersal”
Site Scale - refers to planning at the level of individual tourism property like resorts, hotels and restaurants.

Destination scale - is the planning of tourism in a community and its surrounding areas.

Regional scale - is planning at the level of province, region or country.

7. Demand-led Approach
“Know the customers and satisfy them” is the key to success in tourism according to this approach. This is important for two reasons:
First, we need to design the tourism product around the market
Second, demand projection serve as basis for expansion of the physical capacity of the destination.

Tourism facilities, amenities and services must follow a thorough understanding of the market characteristics and requirements, it must be tailored from the specifications of the tourists.

8. Bureaucratic/Government-led Approach
Puts the government at the center of planning and development, the primary and multi-tasking actor.

Various types of policy instruments to promote tourism
Advocacy instruments - refers to strategic plans, accreditation schemes, investment schemes, etc.
Monetary instruments - include travel taxes, user fees, license permits, tax relief, income tax holidays, etc.
(Government) Action - refers to infrastructure provision, marketing, promotion, education, and research.
Laws - refers to zoning, building regulations, fire and safety regulations, and foreign investment regulations.

There are two types of bureaucratic approaches the Central planning approach and Devolved planning approach.

Central planning approach - is where the national-level agencies carries out all functions related to tourism planning and development

Devolved planning approach - is where local government units assumes control of tourism planning and development for their respective jurisdiction.

The devolution of tourism functions was mandated in R.A 7160, known as the Local Government Code of 1991.
9. Middle Path Approach (Bhutan Model)
This is the opposite of boosterism in Bhutan where strict controls are imposed on the types and volume of tourism to maximize revenue but minimize the adverse effect of tourism in religion, culture and the environment. To the Bhutanese, “Gross National Happiness” is more important than plain material wealth.
10. Environmental Approach
This works best when the place being considered for tourism development is endowed with natural attractions of outstanding beauty; remote; beyond the reach of commercial electric and water services; or protected by laws, such as protected areas and ancestral domains of indigenous people.

Carrying Capacity – is defined as “the maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment, and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of visitors’ satisfaction”

Physical carrying capacity – most salient in environmental planning
- the maximum number of tourists that can fit on a site at any given time and still enable people to move; the number of people that can fit in a site without causing irreversible damage to the environment

Limits of Acceptable Change - another useful concept in tourism planning.
- attempts to delimit the conditions that are deemed ideal for an area and sets up management strategies to achieve the condition.
11. Ecotourism Approach
A form of sustainable tourism within a natural and cultural heritage area where community participation, protection, and management of natural resources, culture and indigenous knowledge and practices, environmental education and ethics, as well as economic benefits are fostered and pursued for the enrichment of host communities and satisfaction of visitors.
12. Social Approach
Emphasizes the role of stakeholders in the tourism planning process.
Concerned with directing the benefit and control of resources toward the community and ether vulnerable groups
13. Participatory/Stakeholder Approach
Puts people at the center of the planning process
Approach wherein each relevant stakeholder has a say in the deliberation and decision making process


Stakeholders - group of people, entities or individuals within a place who have an interest in tourism because they will be affected by a decision to develop or not develop tourism.
Advantages of participatory approach

enhances a sense of ownership of the plan w/c translates into smoother implementation
stakeholders are able to share their knowledge and past experience with tourism development and help avoid. ''pitfalls caused by ignorance of the realities of the community or the target population'' through consultations and workshops
builds trust and social capital through transfer of skills to the community

Disadvantage of participatory approach

there may be strong disagreements among the members and consensus may be hard to establish
not everyone who sits at the table may be qualified to contribute in a meaningful way to the process
dominant individuals who have vested interest or ''axe to grind‘‘ may dominate the proceedings and ruin the process
some groups may just deliberately shun the proceedings for various reasons
time - consuming

14. Community-based Tourism
“Tourism that is owned and/or managed by communities and intended to deliver wider community benefit “
The core idea of this approach is to allow a community to have control over tourism enterprise
This is an example of transactive planning approach, which is based on social learning theory and transactive interaction

15. Pro Poor Approach
Defined as “tourism that generates net benefits for the poor”
In this approach, “the needs of the poor are prioritized over externally-oriented growth imperatives”
Assumes that the trickle-down effect of liberal style tourism does not happen automatically
Interventions from the government or other agencies are needed to channel the benefits of tourism to the poor

Principles that needs to be adhered for PPT to succeed;

Participation by the poor people in decision affecting their livelihood priorities
A holistic livelihood approach
Equity
Flexibility
Commercial realism
Learning
16. Fair Trade Tourism
A response to the failure of conventional trade to deliver sustainable livelihoods and development opportunities to people in the poorest countries of the world
Is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade
Contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers.
Backed by customers, are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade

Adheres to the basic principles of fair trade which includes paying fair wages and working conditions, fair purchasing and operations, equitable distribution of benefits and respect for human rights, culture and the environment.
17. Sustainable Tourism Approach
'‘Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'' as defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development a.k.a Brundtland Commission

Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and the host communities
Goals of sustainable tourism - reflects a multi dimensional perspective and address concerns of various stakeholders
Economic viability - the long term viability and competitiveness of tourism destinations and enterprise
Local prosperity - the maximization of the economic contribution of tourism, particularly the proportion of spending retained locally
Employment quality - the level of pay, working conditions and availability of work opportunities to all without discrimination
Social equity - the widespread and fair distribution of economic and social benefits, and opportunities available to the poor
Visitor fulfillment - the provision of safe, satisfying and fulfilling experience to visitors, available to all without discrimination
Local control - the engagement and empowerment of local communities in planning and decision-making for tourism development in consultation with other stakeholders
Community well-being makers - the enhancement of the quality of life in local communities, as indicated by social structures and access to resources, amenities, and life support systems and the absence of social degradation or exploitation
Cultural richness - the respect for and enhancement of the historic heritage, authentic culture, traditions and distinctiveness of host communities
Physical integrity - the maintenance and enhancement of the quality of landscapes, and avoiding the physical and visual degradation of the environment
Biological diversity - the support for the conservation of natural areas, habitats and wildlife and minimizing damage to them.
Resource efficiency - the minimization of use of scarce and non renewable resources
Environmental purity - the minimization of all forms of pollution and waste generation by tourism enterprises and visitors
Principles and Strategies of Sustainable Tourism
Setting the course
Holistic
Multi-stakeholder engagement
Long-term perspective
Address both global and local impacts
Sustainable consumption

Developing the Approach
Polluter pays principle
Precautionary principle
Life cycle perspective
Considering functional alternatives
Respect limits
Ensuring Ongoing Process
Adapt to changes
Monitor with the use of indicators
Tourism Planning Guidelines (Gunn, 1988)
Planning Policy Directions
The (tourism) development policy must emanate from the national level
Tourism policy should aim to achieve the following goals:
Economic benefits
High-quality visitor satisfaction
Sustainable utilization of natural and cultural resources
Enhanced community quality of life
There should be a balance of social, economic, and environmental goals
Tourism planning must enlist the cooperation, assistance, and inputs from constituencies
The roles of various tourism entities must be clarified
Slow-paced indigenous tourism is best
Planning Processes
Planning must be systematic and integrated
Market-supply match is essential.
Capitalize on the special attributes of an area
Not all areas are suitable for tourism development
Planning is a continuous process
Natural and cultural resources provide the foundation (for tourism development) but they have capacity limits.
Tourism Development
Urban and rural areas depend on each other for tourism growth
Clustering is superior to dispersal because it facilitates better crowd control, more efficient use of infrastructure and results in time saving for tourists
Service depend on attractions. Develop tourist attractions first, then provide the services needed by the tourists
Transportation requires special planning; engineering and technology must be supplemented with understanding of travel market segments
Short-stay and longer-stay tourism should be both developed as they complement each other. Short-stay tourists engage in passive activities in tour circuits while longer-stay tourists engage in repetitive and active pursuits
Tourism Planning Needs (circa 1988)
The need for research, training and education.
There is a need for creativity and innovation in order to cope with the ever-changing trends
Tourism must be flexible
For tourism to be sustainable, the government should undertake the following measures according to McKercher (2003)
Establish national tourism objectives that reflect the unique character, opportunities and constraints in a destination
Develop a shared vision of what type of tourism is wanted and how to achieve that goal
Establish a policy framework to achieve those 0bjectives
Develop in collaboration with others, guidelines, policies and practices for both new tourism projects and the management of ongoing tourism activities
Work with the educational institutions and other organizations in education, training and development programs
Provide a longer-term commitment to move from the current situation to a more attractive future position
Weaver and Lawton (1999) said that sustainable development can be placed along a development continuum with the two extremes being laissez faire and deep ecology
These two extremes are;
Resource conservation which allows managed and modified growth or
Resource preservation which supports zero population growth
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