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Networks and Topology

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on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of Networks and Topology

Networks and Topology
Patrick Sheard
and ross mitchell

What is a network? and why do we need them?
A network is a group of two or more computers linked together.
An example of a network is the schools, allowing communication between computers to utilize the software and hardware.
Networks are vastly useful, they can be used for example to share software between an array of computers with only one copy of the product. It can similarly be used to share hardware, for example a printer, allowing multiple users to print at the same time.
What types of networks are available?
What are topologies? and why do we need them?
Bus Topology
Star Topology
The most common type of network involves a server, this has all of the data shared between the computers stored and requires professional maintenance on the clock, this type of servers are required in large office buildings or for example, a school.

for smaller workspace a p2p network is used (peer to peer), this is used for smaller budgets, and requires no professional maintenance. the only down side to this is that the more computers using the network the slower it will run, this is why it's recommended for up to 4 people.

Bluetooth is also a network to some people's surprise, this involves wireless devices for example, a smartphone or a wireless keyboard. it is only used to transfer data over short distances, to rid the need of wires. This is also known as PAN (personal area network).
Network topologies are a configuration of a communication network. Topologies are needed to define what connection you are using to communicate between mulitple computers.

There are many network topologies, the three main topologies are ring, bus and star.

Ring:-
A ring topology is also a p2p network (peer to peer). the computers are arranged in a circle, and data is passed around the ring until it reaches the correct computer.
Advantage:-
easy to add extra devices
each computer has the same access as the others, so no one computer can 'hog' the network.
Disadvantage:-
If there is a break in the connection (wire or wireless), then the whole network fails.
It is impossible to keep the network running whilst the equipment is added or removed because there is only one path for the data to follow.
Faults are difficult to locate.
Bus:-
A bus topology are a set of computers connected to the shared cable, often referred to as the 'backbone'. signals are passed in either direction along the backbone.

Advantage:-
They are cheap to create as there is only a small amount of cables needed.
they are easy to install as there is less cables.
it is easy to add devices to the network.

Disadvantage:-
If more than about 12 devices are connected to the network the performance begins to deteriorate.
if there is a break in the network much like the Ring topology it will fail.
Star:-
A star topology uses a central connection point for all the devices on the network. The central connection point can be a server, or inexpensive devices called hubs. routers or switches.

Advantage:-
They are fault tollerant if one of the cables fails, the other computers can still be used.
they are low tollerant, extra computers can be added without much change in the performance.

Disadvantage:-
They have a higher cost - the large amount of cabling needed makes it a more expensive topology.
dependance on the central hub/switch/router/server - if the device at the center of the network fails, then the whole network fails.

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