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The Modern Era

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Robert Baker

on 29 April 2016

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Transcript of The Modern Era

What should the government cut?
Medicare and Social Security?
“Americans are conservative. What they want to conserve is the New Deal.”
People relied on these programs now

Deficit increased big time under Reagan, a trend that continued but only gets blamed on the President who happens to be in office at the time
Welfare for the rich?

Cuts?

The Reagan Revolution
Prestige of the Presidency?
Partisan politics?
His refusal to make “deals” even with his own party?
Especially Ted Kennedy

What really doomed Carter?

Immediate release of hostages
$7.9 bil. Of Iranian assets unfreezed
U.S. Promised not to intervene in Iranian affairs

Hostages released minutes after Ronald Reagan delivered inaugural address for President
Many people somewhat attribute the success to Reagan
In reality, the Carter admin. Was worried if they didn’t get the hostages out, they never would. Reagan had delivered harsh rhetoric against Iran in the campaign: The U.S. would not pay “ransom for people who have been kidnapped by barbarians.”
Algiers Accords

Carter submitted over 100 proposals for energy conservation
Politicians from oil, gas, and coal producing states resisted
Automobile manufacturers lobbied against Carter

National Energy Act
Tax on gas guzzling Cars
Removed price controls on oil and natural gas produced in U.S. – it instituted a rationing
Extended tax credits for the development of alternative energy
With the act, and voluntary measures, U.S. dependence on foreign oil decreased by 1979

Crisis cont’d
Supreme Court divided
5 to 4 - justices agreed the quota was unfair to Bakke
Equal protection clause of 14th amendment
4 of the justices said race should never play a part in admissions
But 5 of the judges disagreed with this

A Separate majority
5 to 4 justices said that “the attainment of a diverse student body…is a constitutionally permissible goal for an institution of higher education”

Or, schools can have affirmative action plans that consider race as one factor in admission decisions in order to achieve a diverse student body


Bakke results
Creation of NOW – National Organization of Women (1966)
28 women, including Betty Friedan
It grew

Equal Rights Amendment
Congress passed it – needed 38 states to approve in order to become a part of the Constitution

Phyllis Schlafly – Conservative, religious – claimed this was radical – “Hate men, marriage, and children”
The New Right emerged and helped to destroy the ratification of the bill

Opposition to women’s rights
Women’s right to have an abortion
Supported by N.O.W. and other feminist groups
The right to, not the expectation to = Freedom of choice
PRO CHOICE

1973, Supreme Court ruled that women have the right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy.

The issue is still alive today

Roe v. Wade
Modern Women’s Movement (Women's Liberation)
The Modern Era:
Nixon, Ford, Carter, & Reagan

“Government is the problem”
Scaled back on liberal programs
Social welfare spending
Cut taxes

Dramatic increase in defense spending
Wanted to win the Cold War


Reaganomics
Conservatism grew in reaction to Liberal programs
Legalized abortion
Busing Programs
Anti-War movement

Religious Right joined conservative Republicans to fight:
Divorce, abortions, feminism, premarital sex


The New Right
Carter’s failures set the stage for Conservative Republicans to take over
In comes an actor named Ronald Reagan

Carter’s Exit
Carter attempted to achieve peace in the Middle East Between
Israel
and
Arab
countries
Multilateral

That broke down and Carter pursued peace between
Israel
and
Egypt
Bilateral



Camp David Accords

Shah Pahlavi
American client, installed by the CIA in 1953
Steady flow of oil, ally in the ME
Done for oil and foreign policy [Cold War], didn’t care about the crimes of Iranian Government…he wasn’t Communist

Shah Pahlavi overthrown by fundamentalists for the Ayatollah Khomeini

Iran

Carter’s term troubled by ongoing economic issues
Stagflation
Crisis in Middle East caused a fuel shortage
Summer 1979
OPEC announced a price hike, making matters worse

Tough to get the economy moving again without causing inflation or worse unemployment

He deregulated the airline, trucking and railroad industries
Planes used to compete by giving the best meals…


Jimmy Carter
Carter considered the energy crisis the most important issue
Believed the problem rooted in America’s reliance on imported oil

Carter urged Americans to cut their consumption of oil and gas

President Jimmy Carter – Address to the Nation on Energy

Energy Crisis

Fmr. Governor of Georgia
very progressive in race relations
Peanut Farmer
Very inexperienced at national politics
Down to Earth style
Similar to FDR
Fireside Chats on radio and TV

Jimmy Who?
Pardoned Nixon one month after becoming President
Public didn’t trust politicians at all
“Don’t vote, it only encourages them.”
But, support for Congress did grow after the Impeachment procedures began

Despite his best efforts, Ford is most remembered for falling down on the job



Gerald Ford

Apart of a larger social movement in the 60s

Large waves of Latino immigration occurred in the early 20th century
Many came as braceros


Chavez organized nationwide boycotts of grapes, emulating MLK

Achieved success, Union workers could get benefits and higher wages

Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers

Allan Bakke applied to the University of California at Davis Medical School
The school had a quota, 16 out of 100 spots were reserved for minorities.
Bakke, a white male, was not admitted despite his competitive test scores and grades. Bakke sued, he argued he had been discriminated against based on race.
California state court agreed with Bakke, the school appealed.
Supreme Court in 1978, decided that the affirmative action policies of the University’s medical school were unconstitutional
Court was divided on whether or not affirmative-action plans were constitutional

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Nixon installed a taping system in the oval office
Nixon refused to give up the tapes
Eventually he released censored transcripts
Supreme Court ordered full release of tapes

Nixon clearly ordered the cover up

Nixon is Implicated
Nixon told the CIA to stop an FBI investigation into the affair
That’s obstruction of justice
January 1973 – burglars are found guilty


Watergate
Talked with Soviet Premier Brezhnev
Signed SALT 1
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
Cuts down on ICBM’s


Russia
Nixon was Eisenhower’s VP
Ran against Kennedy
Lost
Ran for Governor of California in 1962
Lost

If at first you don’t succeed….

Nixon: Early Years
Conservatism was discredited during the Great Depression & New Deal
Broke into two factions
A Liberal Faction that went along with the New Deal
A Conservative faction that disagreed with government involvement

1955 – New Conservatism was reborn
Key Belief:
Government had no role in solving social and economic problems (poverty, discrimination, or lack of opportunity)
Believed the Private sector could handle those issues.

Barry Goldwater
Ran for President in 1964 – defeated the Liberal faction of his party
Wanted to scale back on “entitlement programs.”
Poverty, discrimination and lack of opportunity.
He attacked Social Security (make it voluntary) TVA (sell it)
Strong anti-Union * Anti-Communist campaign
Democrats painted him as a radical that would start a nuclear war




New Conservatism
Gorbachev reduced the Kremlin’s control over the Soviet Union

Reforms led to new leaders
Ukraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia

East Germany took down the Berlin Wall in 1989

USSR officially dissolved in 1991
Soviet Union - 1917-1991


Collapse of Communism
Reagan said USSR was “An evil empire”
It needs to end up on “the ash heap of history”
Began the largest peace-time build up of the military in U.S. history – Strategic Defense Initiative – “Star Wars”
Pledged to give support to any anti-Communist guerrilla movement
The U.S. labels some of these groups as terrorists today and they fight against them
Soviets had a new leader:
Mikhail Gorbachev

Collapse of the Soviet Union
Nicaragua aligned with Cuba
CIA aided opposition group called the Contras
They fought a long civil war
Reagan called them freedom fighters and Republicans compared them to the founding fathers
Turned out they were terrorists who were involved in drug trafficking
Reagan's gov't were secretly funding them. (Oli North - the shredder)
Congress tried to limit the president’s power after

Contras

Cut taxes and increased defense spending
But…
No major scale backs to welfare
Federal deficit tripled

Legacy

Increase the supply of goods
Cut taxes for the wealthy
Then they could use the money to expand
Economic Recovery Tax Act
Serious slash in taxes
Cut taxes by around 23%
Government revenue
dropped by $200 billion

Supply-Side Economics

Actor before WW2
President of the Screen Actors Guild
Didn’t like liberals and high taxes
Became a strong conservative
Mid-60’s became a prominent Republican
Governor of California from 1968-76


Ronald Reagan
Lasted 14 months
Embarrassment to Carter administration
Nightly images of hostages on TV
Rescue attempt was carried out…it failed
Finally, the Algiers Accords came at the right time


Iranian Hostage Crisis
Iranian students seized the US embassy in response in 1979
U.S. admitted the deposed Shah into the U.S. for treatment for Cancer
Iranians demanded the return of the Shah
US refused
U.S. demanded release of hostages
Iranians refused

Carter stood strong
“The United States will not yield to blackmail”
Should the U.S. negotiate with ‘terrorists?’

Iranian Hostage Crisis
Carter promised Panama control of the Canal by 1999

Granted diplomatic recognition to the People’s Republic of China

Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan

Carter pledged to protect the Persian Gulf
Carter Doctrine
Boycotted 1980 Summer Olympics
Should we ever do that?


Foreign Affairs
Jimmy Carter vs. Gerald Ford
Carter wins 50% to Ford’s 48%
Carter promised to “never lie to you”

1976 Election
Silent Spring – Rachel Carson
Argued against the use of pesticides
“War Against Nature”
It was a huge seller

First Earth Day April 22, 1970

Government took action
Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970
The Clean Air Act and Endangered Species Act were soon to follow

Efforts towards Nuclear Energy increased

The movement continues today in numerous ways

Environmentalist Movement

Remember Betty Friedan?
1972, Congress passed a ban on gender discrimination in “any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
It was part of the Higher Education Act
Known as Title IX


Results
Several all male colleges opened their doors to women for the first time

House of Representatives drew up articles of Impeachment
Nixon knew he would be convicted by the Senate
August 9th, 1974 – Nixon resigned – only President to do so

Gerald Ford became the new President

Soviets baffled how a President as popular as Nixon could be taken down so easily
Law prevailed in the US


Impeachment?
Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein
Washington Post writers
Found out about the “plumbers”
They had an informant
“Deep Throat”
2005 “Deep Throat” died, so his identity was revealed
FBI second in command Mark Felt

Watergate
Gordon Liddy and Howard Hunt
Former FBI and CIA Agents
“Plumbers”
Clandestine squad
Plug leaks and make sure no traitors in the government

They tried to discredit Ellsburg
The guy the leaked the Pentagon Papers

Watergate

June 17th, 1972
5 men arrested breaking into the Democratic National Committee’s HQ
Watergate Hotel
They had wiretapping equipment
Nixon denied involvement

The Watergate Scandal
Nixon vs. George McGovern
Landslide victory for Nixon

1973 Nixon’s VP Spiro Agnew resigned
Took illegal money as Gov. of Maryland
Gerald Ford becomes new VP

….but then comes.
Watergate Scandal

1972 Election
Détente = Relaxation of Tensions
These meetings led to détente

Cold War still went on, but it was a turning point

Détente
China not getting along with Soviets
Nixon wanted to become “allies”
Went to China in 1972
Promised to recognize China and recognize Taiwan as a part of China (The U.S. would help in seeking a peaceful solution between the two)
Admit China to the UN
And the Security Council

Opened China to business


China
“New Federalism”
Less government
Scaled back the Great Society programs
Didn’t mess with Entitlement Programs like:
Medicare
Medicaid
Social Security
Did not believe in laissez faire


Domestic Agenda

In reality, Gorbachev might have had
more to do with the end of the Cold War
than anyone.

Reform minded leader
Glasnost (openness)
Perestroika (economic restructuring)
Free speech, press, etc., and path to democratic government
Renewed détente with Reagan
Removed ICBM’s in Europe

Gorbachev
Needed Iran’s help to free hostages
Iran was an “outlaw state” however
Sold weapons to Iran, secretly, in exchange for their help
Then used the profits in Nicaragua

Iran-Contra Affair

January 28th, 1986
Unique crew to experience space flight
73 seconds after takeoff
The shuttle broke apart
All crew members killed

Space Shuttle Challenger

Carter vs. Reagan
Carter immensely unpopular
Recession, Iran, Soviets…
Reagan won easily
Depicted Carter as weak and ineffective
Promised to reduce government and rebuilt military
Oxymoron?


1980 Election

Iranian Revolution
Iran-Iraq War
Gas prices skyrocketed
Carter’s approval rating dropped below below 30%

Turmoil in the Middle East
Elected President in 1968
Ran as anti-Communist, pro-law and order
Nixon’s goals:
Wanted to build a relationship with China
Control arms with the Soviets
Peace talks in the Middle East
Anti-crime
Speed up desegregation
Scale back progressive reforms
Return to social order, decency, and stability
Had to deal with Vietnam first

President

Reagan vs. Minnesota Gov. Walter Mondale
Mondale’s VP choice?
Geraldine Ferraro – significance?
Reagan dominated

1984 Election

Ideas served as a template for future conservative presidents
Appointed 3 to the Supreme Court
Sandra Day O’Connor
Antonin Scalia
Anthony Kennedy
Elevated William Rehnquist to Chief Justice


Reagan’s Legacy

The Modern Era: George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama

“ I did not have sexual relations….”

Clinton denied the charges, the Senate acquitted him. Clinton remained in office and finished his second term.

2nd President to be impeached
Who was the first?
What about Nixon?

House of Representatives charged him with perjury and obstruction of justice- Newt Gingrich and Republicans lead the charge

Charges based on improper use of money from a real estate deal and allegations that he lied under oath about a relationship with a White House intern.

Impeachment
North American Free Trade Agreement
Brought Mexico into a free-trade (tariff free) trading zone between Canada and the U.S.

Opponents felt NAFTA would send U.S. jobs to Mexico and harm the environment

Supporters believed it would open the growing Mexican market to U.S. companies

Pros and Cons still argued today….

Clinton and NAFTA
Presidency got off to a rocky start
Clinton issued an executive order that protected gays and lesbians in the U.S. Military
Congress felt this sort of thing should be handled through legislation not executive orders


In the beginning….

International Coalition to fight al-Qaeda and other terrorist groups

2003, the U.S. and Great Britain invaded Iraq

Operation Iraqi Freedom
President Saddam Hussein went into hiding while the U.S. looked for WMD’s (The justification for the invasion)
WMD’s were never found. Hussein was captured, convicted of crimes against humanity and executed in 2006.

War on Terrorism
Invasion of Afghanistan
Taliban Government harbored al-Qaeda leadership
An ally force quickly defeat the Taliban government.


However, Osama Bin Laden, the man responsible for 9/11, escaped.

Saudi Arabia?

Operation Enduring Freedom
Passed shortly after
Very Controversial
Allowed the U.S. government to hold foreign citizens suspected of being terrorists for up to 7 days without charging them for a crime.

Increased the ability of law enforcement to search private communications and personal records.

What about the Constitution?

Department of Homeland Security was created.

Patriot Act
September 11, 2001 – al-Qaeda – a radical extremist group of Muslims, attacked the World Trade Center in New York City.

Terrorists also attacked the Pentagon



Flight 93

9/11
Despite the political infighting:
Economically the administration oversaw tax cuts and reduced spending
The national budget debt narrowed
The U.S. enjoyed a budget surplus

Clinton Legacy
Mid-1994 Republicans took control of Congress

Newt Gingrich led the charge, later became Speaker

Used voters’ dissatisfaction with Clinton to turn them towards the Republican Party (the GOP)
“CONTRACT WITH AMERICA”
Congressional term limits, balanced budget amendment, tax cuts, tougher crime laws, welfare reform

As a result of partisan politics, Congress literally shut down a week in November 1995, then again for several weeks

The New Right
Bush left with massive deficits from Reagan admin.
Could not get Congress to compromise on a budget
Dems: wanted to raise taxes
Rep: cut spending
Bush accepted Dem. Proposals to raise taxes after the growing Reagan deficit and a recession changed his mind.
This is a BIG reason why he lost his re-election

Persian Gulf Wars
U.S. (U.N.) vs Iraq
Iraq invaded Kuwait and turned towards Saudi Arabia
Oil Fields

Presidency

Al Gore (Clinton’s VP) v. George W. Bush (Gov. of Texas)
Annnnnnd, Ralph Nader

One of the closest races in American History

Gore won the popular vote by over 500,000. However, Bush won the Electoral College.

Bush won 271 electoral votes to 266.
The Florida controversy and the Supreme Court
Who was on the Supreme Court?

2000 Election
Bush v. Fmr. Gov. of Arkansas – Bill Clinton

We must never forget Ross Perot…..

1992 Election
What is the cost?
Financially?
Ideologically?
Culturally?
Militarily?

Xenophobia (Islamaphobia)?

Long term effects
George H. W. Bush v. Michael Dukakis
Bush wins – endorsed:
Pledge of Allegiance
Prayer in schools
Capital punishment
Gun rights
Opposed abortion
“Read my lips: no new taxes”

1988 Election
Barack Obama won the election, he became the first Black Man to win the office
Due to a tanking economy, a continued overseas conflict, and popularity with voters
There was also the Sarah Palin factor

Barack Obama (Dem.) vs John McCain (Rep.)

2008 Elections
The Nixon Years
Social Movements
The Carter Years
The Reagan Years
Bush the Elder
The Clinton Years
The Bush Years
The Obama Years
The Modern Era: 1968 to the Present
Full transcript