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The Real Presence in the Eucharist

Presentation for 1/28/13 meeting; by Edward, Michael, and Little

Seek Apologetics

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of The Real Presence in the Eucharist

The Eucharist CCC 1374- The mode of Christ’s presence under the Eucharistic species is unique. It raises the Eucharist above all the sacraments as “the perfection of the spiritual life and the end to which all the sacraments tend.” (St. Thomas Aquinas, STh III, 73, 3c.)
In the most blessed sacrament of the Eucharist “the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ and, therefore, the whole Christ is truly, really, and substantially contained.”(Council of Trent 1551: DS 1651)
“This presence is called ‘real’ – by which is not intended to exclude the other types of presence as if they could not be ‘real’ too, but because it is presence in the fullest sense: that is to say, it is a substantial presence by which Christ, God and man, makes himself wholly and entirely present.” (Mysterium fidei- Paul VI) Common Objection "Jesus says '...do this in memory of me'. So the Eucharist is just a memorializing and symbolic remembrance of what Jesus did." First Response "...this IS my body...this IS my blood..." (Matt 26:26-28)
"...this IS my body...This IS my blood..." (Mark 14:22-24)
"...This IS my body...do this in memory of me...This IS...my blood" (Luke 22:19-20)
"This IS my body...do this in remembrance of me...This cup IS...my blood...drink it, in remembrance of me..." (1 Cor 11:24-25) Greek word "estin" = "is really" or "is figuratively" So which is it? For starters, there are about 3 dozen Aramaic words for "represents" John 6 [51] ...the bread that I will give is my flesh for the life of the world.
[52] ...How can this man give us his flesh to eat?
[53] ...unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you do not have life within you.
[55] ...my flesh is true food and my blood is true drink. [60] This saying is hard; who can accept it?
[61] Does this shock you?
[66] As a result of this, many of his disciples returned to their former way of life and no longer accompanied him.
[67] Do you also want to leave?
[68] Master to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life. The crowd understands the words in their literal sense, so they are shocked For comparison: Would you be shocked if I told you that this flag represents my country? Rather than using the usual word for eat, he uses the word meaning "to gnaw on" (not the language of metaphor)

"trogon" = gnaw Jesus does not back down here! Clearly, he sees that the crowd is understanding him in a literal sense! Memory aid!

Many people left Jesus because of this teaching in John 6:66 Jesus risks His whole mission, by giving his closest followers the option to leave!!! But How Can This Be? Transubstantiation
Substance changes
Accidents (appearance) remain
Biblical examples of God appearing in various forms
Burning bush (Exodus 3:2-6)
A pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21-22)
Holy Spirit in a dove-like appearance (Matthew 3:16)
Comes to Abraham as "three men" (Genesis 18:1-2)
Jesus! The Word made Flesh Memorization Tip!

You don't really need to memorize these verse numbers! The Gospel accounts of the Last Supper are all labeled! St. Ignatius of Antioch - about 110 A.D. "I have no taste for corruptible food nor for the pleasures of this life. I desire the Bread of God, which is the Flesh of Jesus Christ, who was of the seed of David; and for drink I desire His Blood, which is love incorruptible." Common Objection "I would have to see Jesus' flesh and blood with my own two eyes to believe it!" Response None of us, Catholics nor Protestants, ever saw Jesus during his earthly ministry and yet we all believe that through him we are offered salvation "Have you come to believe because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and have believed." (John 20:29)
"Although you have not seen him you love him; even though you do not see him now yet believe in him, you rejoice with an indescribable and glorious joy, as you attain the goal of faith, the salvation of your souls."
(1 Pet 1:8-9)
"We have come to believe and are convinced that you are the Holy One of God." (John 6:69) Ask a non-Catholic: : If God humbled Himself to become a man and be crucified for our sake, why should it be beyond Him to become fully present in the Eucharist? In each, we behold the depth of God’s love for us and His desire to remain with and in us. Each is a miracle of God’s presence. Common Objection “You Catholics believe that you are partaking of Jesus’ glorified and risen body and blood when you receive Holy Communion. If Jesus was able to give His Apostles His glorified and risen body and blood to eat at the Last Super on Holy Thursday (before his crucifixion), there would have been no reason for Him to go through the agony of offering His flesh and blood on the cross the next day.” Response As mentioned earlier, in each Gospel account of the Last Supper Jesus states “this is my body” and “this is my blood”. Draw their attention not only to what is said but also what is not said by Christ. Jesus did not use the words represent, symbolize, or a phrase like “what I offer you is only bread and wine to eat and drink.”
When someone questions how Christ could be present in the bread and wine at the Last Supper draw their attention to the miracles of Jesus and his Apostles. Nowhere is it stated how they healed the blind, the deaf, or raised people from the dead. Yet, we still accept these as true events.
St. Augustine wrote that in a mystical way Christ held Himself in His hands at the Last Supper. Common Objection “Why do I need to receive Jesus in Holy Communion when He is already constantly dwelling within me?” Catholic Teaching CCC 1324- “The Eucharist is “the source and summit of the Christian life.” (Lumen Gentium- VII) The other sacraments...are bound up with the Eucharist and are oriented toward it. For in the blessed Eucharist is contained the whole spiritual good of the Church, namely Christ himself.”

CCC1325 - "[The Eucharist] is the culmination both of God’s action sanctifying the world in Christ and of the worship men offer to Christ and through him to the Father in the Holy Spirit." Several times in the New Testament Jesus presented as the ‘bridegroom’ seeking total union with His ‘bride’ the Church
“For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the Church, his body, and is himself its Savior. As the Church is subject to Christ, so let wives be also subject to everything in their husbands. Husbands, love your wives as Christ loved the Church and gave himself up for her…” (Ephesians 5:23-25) Through the Eucharist, and the other sacraments, we partake in this marital relationship. It is a total giving and receiving and a reaffirmation of our covenant relationship with God. Heavenly worship that takes place on the Lord’s day (Rev 1:10) The Mass Jesus dressed in liturgical garb of the high priest (Rev 1:13; Exod 28:4)
The New Testament ‘hidden manna’ (heavenly bread) to eat (Rev 2:17; John 6: 48-51; Rev 3: 20)
Perpetual sacrificial nature is clear because Jesus, in His risen, glorified body in heaven still looks like “a Lamb that seemed to have been slain” (Rev 5:6; Rev 21:4; 1 Cor 5: 7-8; 1 Cor 11:26)
Familiar prayers such as the Sanctus (Holy, Holy, Holy) (Rev 4:8; Isaiah 6: 1-3) and the “Great Amen” (Rev 5: 14) are used. Worshippers kneel (Rev 5:14), an altar is used (Rev 8:3), incense used regularly (Rev 5:8; Rev 8: 3-4)
The liturgy of the Word is followed by the liturgy of the Eucharist (Rev 19:9; Acts 2:42; Luke 24:30)
These examples, and others, clearly show that the Mass mirrors and participates in the heavenly worship of God St. Basil- “It is good and beneficial to communicate every day, and to partake of the holy body and blood of Christ. For He distinctly says, ‘He that eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life.’ (Jn. 6:55). And who doubts that to share frequently in life is the same thing as to have manifold life. I, indeed communicate four times a week, on the Lord’s day, on Wednesday, on Friday, and on the Sabbath, and on the other days if there is a commemoration of any Saint.” The Early Life of the Church
“And they held steadfastly to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of the bread and to the prayers. And day by day, attending the temple together and breaking bread in their homes, they partook of food with glad and generous hearts.”
Acts 2:46
The breaking of the bread is fundamentally different from an everyday meal. “And he took bread, and when he had given thanks broke it and gave it to them, saying, 'This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me.'” (Lk 22: 19) Fulfill Jesus’ Command! Jesus did not say “Whenever it is convenient for you, do this” or “As long as you remember me you do not have to do this.” His command was simple and direct. The Road to Emmaeus “And he said to them, 'O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary that Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?' And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.”
(Lk 24:25-27)

Luke 24:30-35
“When he was at table with them he took the bread and blessed and broke it, and gave it to them. And their eyes were opened and they recognized him and he vanished out of sight….. ‘Did not our hearts burn within us while he talked to us on the road, while he opened to us the Scriptures?’….Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread.” Here we have the first half of the Mass, the Liturgy of the Word.

A reading of Scripture and a homily which breaks open the Scriptures for us.

Note that Jesus reveals himself to be foreshadowed in the Old Testament. It is in the Mass, in the breaking of the bread, that we come to know Jesus Christ. Notice that the two Apostles do not say that Jesus’ identity is learned through only a study of Scripture, but specifically through the breaking of the bread, which is the Eucharist. We know that the Mass is necessary because as we read earlier in John 6:53-54... Common Objection "Why can only Catholics receive Holy Communion? Isn't the Catholic Church being elitist?" Response When we receive communion, we say, "AMEN!"

The meaning of communion Greek/Hebrew origins

Means: "So be it: Truly" Minister says, "The Body of Christ"

We say, "AMEN!" This is not a meaningless response! It is a public profession! One shares a common belief with other Catholics. If one does not believe it is truly Jesus, then it is not sharing in the union
If a non-Catholic Christian wants to receive but he/she does not believe it is Jesus, why do they want to receive Communion? Who Can Receive Communion? Why? Catholics who are in mortal sin, must not receive

1 Corinthians 11:27-29 “Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink the cup. For any who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself.” ...But Seriously! Cyprian notices Paul's seriousness on this issue: "He (Paul) threatens, moreover, the stubborn and forward, and denounces them, saying 'whosoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily is guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.' Lapsed Christians who claim communion without doing penance 'do violence to his body and blood, a sin more heinous against the Lord with their hands and mouths than when they denied Him." Early Church Father! Bishop of Carthage, died 258) Justin Martyr: “We call this food Eucharist and no one else is permitted to partake of it except one who believes our teaching to be true AND who has been washed in the washing which is for the remission of sins and for regeneration and is thereby living as Christ enjoined.” First Apology 66 A.D. Also an early Church father, lived in 100 A.D. Repetitive but we see that... 1. It's in the Bible
2. We are interpreting as it was 2000 years ago Recall that other churches must base teachings off their own or their congregation's interpretations.

Though they do not respect the Church's authority in interpreting the Bible...

...it may be good to point out the difference in "interpretation" between them and the people from soon after Jesus' time. Consubstantiation vs. Transubstantiation The substance of Jesus is present next to the substance of common bread and wine After the words of consecration, the substance of the bread and wine cease to exist and only the substance of Jesus remains (with the outer observable properties of bread and wine) St. Ignatius of Antioch: "The Eucharist you should consider valid is the one that is celebrated by the Bishop himself or by some person authorized to join him. Where the Bishop is to be seen, there let all his people be, just as wherever Jesus Christ is present, there is the Catholic Church." Church father, c. 110 A.D. From "The Didache" ("The Twelve") On the Lord’s own day, assemble in common to break bread and offer thanks; but first confess your sins, so that your sacrifice may be pure. However, no one quarreling with his brother may join your meeting until they are reconciled; your sacrifice must not be defiled. For here we have the saying of the Lord: ‘In every place and time offer me a pure sacrifice; for I am a mighty King, says the Lord; and my name spreads terror among the nations’ [Mal1:11].” Response "But our church has holy communion too!"
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