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Women in Politics - Senior Capstone Presentation
Transcript of Women in Politics - Senior Capstone Presentation
Women in Politics
The United States has never had a female President.
The United States
The United States Senate
has twenty women, more than ever before.
There are 17 countries that currently have a female leader:
Trinidad and Tobago
Over 50 countries have had a female leader at some point:
In 2008, Hillary Clinton came closer to the White House than any woman previously had.
There have only been 2 female Vice Presidential candidates: Democrat Geraldine Ferraro in 1984 and Republican Sarah Palin in 2008.
The Cabinet is currently 20% female: three out of fifteen Secretaries.
The House of Representatives has 81 women in 435 seats.
There is only one women's bathroom near the Senate floor.
New Hampshire is the first state to have an all female congressional delegation.
Back at home:
Massachusetts has had one female governor: Jane Smith was acting governor from 2001-2003.
Of the 50 largest cities
in the U.S. only 7 have female mayors:
Fort Worth, TX
Las Vegas, NV
The Massachusetts Senate is currently 30% female - 12 women out of 40 total seats.
The House of Representatives has 36 women in 160 seats - 22.5%.
Boston has never had a female mayor.
Boston currently has one woman on it's 13 member City Council, Ayanna Pressley.
The City Council has had 2 female presidents, Maureen Feeney (2007-2998) and Louise Day Hicks (1976).
ranks 92 out of 190 countries
in the world for the percentage of women in lower legislative bodies.
Throughout history there have been 35 female governors.
are 24.2% female.
Administer a survey similar to the Citizen Political Ambition Survey to a sample of Northeastern students, as well as follow up interviews with a smaller sample of respondents.
Do college-aged women already have lower political ambition than men, or does the political ambition of women decrease as they grow older?
There will already be an ambition gap between college-aged men and women, however it will not be as large as it was between mid-career professionals. I expect the gap to grow as women move into the workforce and start families.
The Citizen Political Ambition Panel Study
Attitudes towards running for office
Background and family life
Questions measure respondents' attitudes about politics including political ideology, feelings about women in politics, attitudes towards politicians, and political engagement.
Political attitudes & participation:
Questions measured respondents' political ambitions including steps taken towards running for office, comfort with different aspects of running, perceived qualifications, and expected success.
Questions ask respondents about their family life, years of education, age, salary range, household division of labor, priorities, and childhood households.
Women who run for office win at equal rates to men. However, the women who run are more qualified than the men who run, so the situation is still not equal.
Why are there so few women in political office? Is there a bias against women?
Pipeline professions & Incumbency advantage:
There are less women in the "pipeline" professions that often lead into politics. (Law, business, education & politics)
Incumbents seek reelection in over 75% of Congressional and state legislative elections and their reelection rates are around 90%.
Voters are overwhelmingly
more willing to vote for a female presidential nominee and less likely to feel that men are "better suited emotionally for politics" than ever before - but in 2004 10% and 25% (respectively) of the population still disagreed. Also, women must raise more money to do as well
as men at the polls.
Female candidates often receive less issues coverage than male candidates and more on appearance, personality and family.
There have been numerous studies about the sexism that Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin faced in the media coverage of the 2008 elections.
There is a significant gender gap in political ambition, women both consider running for office and actually decide to enter a race at much lower rates than men - for a range of factors.
7 factors that contribute to the gender gap in political ambition:
Perception of electoral environment
Media treatment in recent female candidacies
Perception of qualifications
Less competitive, less confident and more risk averse
Less likely to receive the suggestion to run