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Mendelian Genetics

Chapter 10 Notes

Ryan Bell

on 27 September 2012

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Transcript of Mendelian Genetics

Mendelian Genetics ...an introduction The Rule of Unit Factors Each organism has two factors that control each of its traits These "unit factors" are what we
refer to as "alleles." The branch of Biology that studies Heredity The passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring and...2 Laws Characteristics that are inherited are called traits Alleles are different forms of a trait! The Rule of Dominance Each organism contains two alleles that make up one gene that codes for one trait Dominant > Recessive The dominant trait is the trait that is observed While the recessive trait disappears The Law of Segregation Every individual has two alleles of each gene and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives one of these alleles During Fertilization or Pollenation, these gametes randomly pair to produce one of four possible combinations of alleles. 2 Rules... The union of the male and female gametes Sex cells - Haploid (1n) The Law of Independent Assortment Genotypes Are represented by 2 letters, and refer to the actual allelic combination an organism contains. Each letter = 1 Allele! Phenotypes Refer to the physical expression of the trait or how an organism looks or behaves. The phenotype is what we SEE! If an organism has two alleles that are the same, it is said to be homozygous for that particular trait Homozygous Dominant Homozygous Recessive If an organism has two alleles that are different, it is said to be heterozygous for that particular trait Genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other Punnett Squares and probability f f F f Ff ff ff Monohybrid Cross Ff Offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait "mono" because parents differ in ONE trait... F = Fluffy f = Scruffy Rule 1 Rule 2 Law 1 Law 2 Carry out the following Dihybrid cross between an organism that is Fluffy and Cuddly (FfCc) and an organism that is Scruffy and Pointy (ffcc). Then, write the genotypic and phenotypic probabilities! Gregor What accounts for variations in offspring? Stay tuned for next class! Genetics are fun.
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