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Rosa Parks

Sitting Down to Stand Up
by

Amanda Yokingco

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement" "I would like to be remembered as a person who wanted to be free... so other people would be also free."

-Rosa Parks Rosa Won't Move On December 1, 1955 in Montgomery,Alabama, Rosa boarded the bus (coming home from work), walked past the"whites only" section, and took a seat in the fifth row; the front row of the African American section. Before long, more people crowded onto the bus. They ran out of seats in the white section. Then the bus driver noticed that a white man still needed a seat. *There was a law in the southern states against African Americans and white people sitting together on city buses.

*If the seats where the white people sat were filled, African Americans had to give up their seats. The bus driver, James F. Blake, ordered her and the black people sitting next to her to move to the back of the bus. The Courage to Make a Difference The black people sitting next to Rosa moved to the rear of the bus. Rosa Didn't. She was just tired of being treated differently because of the colour of her skin. She wasn't trying to be a hero. She wasn't tired either. The driver asked her again if she was going to give up her seat. She said... No. Breaking Barriers. " Tired of giving in" "I'm going to have you arrested," he said. "You may do that," Rosa replied calmly. The police came and arrested Rosa. They took her to jail. A few days later, the court found her guilty of breaking the city's busing laws. But local black leaders decided to use her arrest to challenge Montgomery's busing laws. They formed a new group called the Montgomery Improvement Association. They put a young minister named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in charge. —Jay-Z Childhood Sitting Down to Stand up Rosa was born on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama. Her parents named her Rosa Louise McCauley. Her parents were Leona and James McCauley. She also had a brother named Sylvester. I'm watching you... Parks' father left to find work when she was 2 years old. Parks' mother then took her two children to live with her parents on a small farm in Pine Level, Alabama. Parks' grandparents had been slaves. They told her about how African Americans were mistreated. They taught her that all people deserved civil rights. *The rights of every citizen of a country.

*In the United States, a citizen's civil rights include the right to speak freely, the right to vote, the right to live anywhere, and the right to equal protection under the law. School In 1918, at age 6, Rosa began school in Pine Level, Alabama. White children and African American children went to different schools. White children rode the bus to school while Parks and other African Americans had to walk. In 1924, Parks started classes at the Montgomery Industrial School for Girls in nearby Montgomery, Alabama. The teachers were white women from the northern United States. They taught Rosa self-respect. She learned that she should not expect less of herself just because of her dark skin. In 1929, five years later, Rosa left school to care for her grandmother. She also started working at a shirt factory in Montgomery. Marriage In 1932, Rosa met Raymond Parks. He worked as a barber. They were married in December 1932. The Parkses lived in Montgomery, Alabama. Raymond encouraged Rosa to finish high school. She went back to school and finished in 1934. Rosa and the NAACP Parks volunteered with the NAACP. *The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. She wrote letters and set up meetings. She also worked with young people in the NAACP Youth Council. Back to December 1, 1955... Actually, when Rosa was arrested... To Get Out of Jail... Parks' boss at the NAACP , Edgar Nixon, heard that she was arrested and called his friend Clifford Durr; a white lawyer in Montgomery. In 1943, she became the groups secretary in Montgomery and worked for Edgar Nixon, the head of the local NAACP group. Nixon, Durr, and Parks' husband went to the station and Durr paid $100 to get Rosa out of jail. Rosa had a choice to make; she could quietly pay the fine for her arrest or she could fight in court. Boycott Word of Parks' arrest soon spread through Montgomery. Then the African Americans decided to boycott the buses. *To refuse to take part in something as a way of making a protest. They asked other African Americans to stay off the buses on December 5, the day of Rosa's trial. Also a group of women printed flyers asking children and adults not to ride the buses for one day. December 5 was a cloudy, rainy day and still very few African Americans rode the buses. In court Rosa pleaded not guilty but the judge found her guilty. She was fined $14, which she never paid. The MIA decided that a one-day boycott was not enough so they asked African Americans not to ride on Montgomery's buses until the laws changed. The boycott lasted through winter and into the next fall. African Americans walked to work or carpooled. White women also gave rides to their African American maids. Many white people in Montgomery disagreed with the fight for equality. Dr. King's house was bombed and some white people wanted to hurt or kill Rosa. On November 13, 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court took action. The judges decided segregation on public buses was against the law. Their decision became official on December 20. After 381 days, the bus boycott ended. The Civil Rights Act In 1964, the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act. This law said that the government could no longer make laws based on a person's skin colour. This law changed the lives of many African americans. Rosa Parks' Legacy Rosa kept working to improve the lives of black Americans, even after the Civil Rights Act. In the 1980s, she was honored for her role in the fight for civil rights. Streets were named after her. She also won the Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize in 1980, U.S. congress's highest award in 1999, and the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor. Rosa Parks died on October 24, 2005. All over the world, people gathered to remember her. Sometimes a single action can change the world. It doesn't have to be big or showy. It can be as simple as staying in your seat. That's what Rosa Parks did more than 50 years ago. Her life will always remind us that taking even simple steps can make the world a better place. THE END!!! THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!! *The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was formed on December 5, 1955 by black ministers and community leaders in Montgomery, Alabama.

*Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Edgar Nixon, the MIA was the main force in guiding the Montgomery bus boycott, a successful campaign that focused national attention on racial segregation in the South and catapulted King into the national spotlight.
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