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The United Nations

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Erikas Kaukas

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of The United Nations

The United Nations
UN History
"To work together, with other free peoples, both in war and in peace"
Millennium Development Goals
The United Nations System
Peacekeeping operations
A peacekeeping operation is led by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), and works to create the conditions for lasting peace in a country torn by conflict.
The United Nations
It's Your World
The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.


The UN has 4 main purposes

1.
To keep peace throughout the world;
2.
To develop friendly relations among nations
3.
To help nations work together to improve the lives
of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy,
and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms;
4.
To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.

Prehistory
States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters: The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874.
1899, the International Peace Conference
1919, the League of Nations
The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945
History of the United Nations Charter
12 June 1941 - The Declaration of St. James's Palace
14 August 1941 - The Atlantic Charter
1 January 1942 - The Declaration of the United Nations
1943 - Moscow and Teheran Conference
1944-1945 - Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta
1945 - San Francisco Conference
Successes

•Maintained peace for just over 15 years

•Began decolonisation process through covenant on decolonisation 1925


Failures

•No check on Germany 1938/1939

•Failure to implement mutual security

•No political will to defend small states against the most powerful


General Assembly
International
Court of Justice
The principal judicial organ of the United Nations
The main deliberative, policymaking and
representative organ of the United Nations

Comprising all 193 Members of the United Nations

Decisions on important questions require a two-thirds majority.

Decisions on other questions are by simple majority.

Each country has one vote.
the Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
Security Council
15 members: five permanent members
with veto power and ten non-permanent
members, elected by the General Assembly
for a two-year term.
Meetings are called at any given time when the need arises
The world’s economic, social and environmental challenges are ECOSOC’s concern.
Economic and
Social Council
The Council's 54 member Governments are elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms.
the session is divided into 5 segments ―
High-level; Coordination; Operational
Activities; Humanitarian Affairs;
and General which cover both
global issues and
technical,
administrative questions.
An international staff working in duty stations around the world
Secretariat
Head is the Secretary-General
The Secretariat has around 43,000
staff members around the world
The UN currently has 16 peace operations,
deployed on four continents.
Headquartered in New York
The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands)
The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions
The Court is composed of 15 judges
1. Committee: Disarmament and International Security
2. Committee: Economic and Financial
3. Committee: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Issues
4. Committee: Special Political and Decolonisation
5. Committee: Administrative and Budget (internal)
6. Committee: Legal
The United Nations Trusteeship Council
The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994, with the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations trust territory, on 1 October 1994.
Task of supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. Major goals of the System were to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development towards self-government or independence.
The Trusteeship Council is made up of the
five permanent members of the Security Council
Department of
Peacekeeping Operations
Office of Operations
The main role of the Office of Operations is to provide political and strategic policy and operational guidance and support to the missions.
Office of the Rule of Law and Security Institutions
Strengthen the links and coordinate the Department’s activities in the areas of police, justice and corrections, mine action, the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants and security sector reform.
Office of Military Affairs
Works to deploy the most appropriate military capability in support of United Nations objectives;
Enhance performance and improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of military components in United Nations Peacekeeping missions.
Policy Evaluation and Training Division
provides an integrated capacity to develop and disseminate policy and doctrine;
develop, coordinate and deliver standardized training; evaluate mission progress towards mandate implementation;
develop policies and operational frameworks for strategic cooperation with various UN and external partners.
The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)
is dedicated to assisting the Member States and
the Secretary-General in their efforts to maintain
international peace and security.
Head of Department
The Under-Secretary-General for the Department of Peacekeeping Operations is Mr. Hervé Ladsous
More Facts About Peace Keeping Ops
Peacekeeping operations since 1948: 68
Current peacekeeping operations: 15
Current peace operations directed by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations: 16*
Personnel

Uniformed personnel: 96,877
Troops: 82,127
Police: 12,930
Military observers: 1,820
Civilian personnel: 16,725 (as of 30 June)
International: 5,032
Local: 11,693
UN Volunteers: 1,980
Total number of personnel serving in 15 peacekeeping operations: 115,582
Total number of personnel serving in 16 DPKO-led peace operations: 117,404
Countries contributing uniformed personnel: 116
Total fatalities: 3,143
Financial aspects
Approved resources for the period from 1 July 2013
to 30 June 2014: about $7.54 billion
Outstanding contributions to peacekeeping
(as of 31 August 2013): about $4.77 billion
Full transcript