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Transcript of Elizabethan
In Greenwich Castle Her mother Anne Boleyn, was the Queen of England from 1533-1536 -She was falsely charged with the adultry, incest and treason and was beheaded by the expert swordsman, Jean Romboud, who was hired by King Henry VIII himself - Died May 19, 1536 - The marriage between
Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII
was declared illegitimate Her Father was King Henry VIII - He was disappointed
that Anne Boleyn was
having a girl - Died January 28, 1547 - Married 4 women after
Anne Boleyn had been
executed She was very skillful in her studies.
She was taught by some of the most famous scholars such as William Grindal and Roger Ascham By the time she beccame an adult, she could speak 5 different languages fluently Queen Elizabeth I had a half-sister named Queen Mary I
Queen Mary I was the daughter of Katherine of Aragon and King Henry VIII and was married to King Philip of Spain
After King Edward had died, Queen Mary I had struggled to get to the throne when the Duke of Northumberland wanted his daughter-in-law, Jane Grey, to be the queen Elizabeth was a protestant, which made Queen Mary I suspicious that she may be making plan with Thomas Wyatt to overthrow her and take the throne
Queen Mary I had Elizabeth locked in the Tower of London for two months and then imprisoned in Woodstock Manor in Oxfordshire
She was freed by King Phillip of Spain, after one year in Oxfordshire Elizabeth got the name of "Queen" on November 17, 1558, at the age of 25. It was right after the death of her half-sister Queen Mary I Queen Elizabeth was called the Virgin Queen because she had never married and she also never had children or sexual interactions of any sorts
A man named Thomas Seymour had made people question her status but she convinced the interrogators that she never had any knowledge of the plot. Queen Elizabeth I had loved plays and had attended many of William Shakespeare's plays, in the Globe Theatre. Queen Elizabeth I had ruled for over 44 years
Her reign ended in March 24, 1603, which was the day Queen Elizabeth had died She had died at the age of 69 at Richmond Palace on Lady Day
She had died in her sleep because of blood poisoning The Black Death The Bubonic Plague Medical Beliefs and Practices Fashion, Food and Drink Originated in China Spread through flies and rodents
Over two hundred million people were infected by the disease, which is more than a quarter of the population Some of the symptoms for the Bubonic Plague include:
Blackening of skin
painful swelling During the Elizabethean Era, treatments for the Bubonic Plague included puncturing swells throughout the body and applying butter, garlic and onions on open wounds. Queen Elizabeth I set a quarantine to prevent the spread of the Bubonic Plague
She also banned foreign goods Commoners were given the job of "watchmen" or "death cart labourers"
Their job was to watch quarantined houses and dump bodies in deep pits Shakespeare and theatre were greatly affected by the Bubonic Plague's spread across Europe. As the disease became stronger and affected more people it also killed many actors. Also, theatres were constantly shut down whenever a outbreak occurred In the Elizabethean Era. sewage systems were non-existent and waste was thrown into rivers. Even though people bathed and brushed their teeth, their methods of hygiene were not that good. The poor would bathe rarely and that too with cold water. The rich would bathe in wooden barrels with warm water DID YOU KNOW? The nursery rhyme "Ring Around The Rosey" is actually inspired by the black death.
The translation is:
"Ring around the Rosey" - a rosey rash in the shape of a ring
"Ashes, Ashes" - cremation
"Pocketfull of Posies" - diseases were believed to have travelled through bad smells
"A-Tishoo A-Tishoo" - represents sneezing, a vital symptom of the Bubonic Plague Women had many choices for underclothes.
They included: smock, corset, hooped skirt, rowle,stomacher petticoat,
kirtle, forepart, partlet
Women had many choices for clothing on top as well including: gown, separate sleeves, ruff, cloak, shoes, hat Men's underclothing included: shirt, stockings,
Men had choices of wearing :
doublet, separate sleeves, breeches, belt, Ruff, Cloak, shoes, hat Trend slashing : slashing undergarments to showcase a contrast in colors of fabric underneath. This was due to the lack of clothing and limitations of the traditional Elizabethan dress. Accessories include:
-The French Hood
- The Atifet
- The Caul
- The Pillbox Hairstyles for women during the Elizabethan era were highly elaborated and were meant to attract attention.
Men on the other hand, showered as much, if not more attention on their beards than women on their hair. Children of Nobility:
- Boys wore skirts till they were 7, and then breeshes soon after.
- Babies were swaddled completely from birth – 12 months
- Girls had to wear bonnets till the age of 9
- They wore tight fitting clothes
- only have one set of clothes
- rarely washed
- Made out of wool The main spices used during the Elizabethan era include: Saffron, salt, parsley and cloves. Different sets of utensils were set out to be used during different courses throughout the meal.People of lower social status sat on benches, with dirty utensils and bowls. The nobility on the other hand, were expected to eat in a behaved manner to reflect their position in society. Breakfasts includes:
- beverage like ale
Food served for dinner during the Elizabethan era was heavy and scrumptious.
There are often five courses served and these consists of civet of hare, quarter of stag , stuffed chicken and a loin of veal. Last two dished were covered with German sauce with gilt sugar-plumes and pomegranate seeds Wine and ale were usual beverages for adults and children but in general, they drank whatever their parents could afford. The levels of humours in the body also characterized the personality of one being.
- More blood: characterized as having a sanguine personality - as in, they were passionate, amorous, joyful, and kind
- Abundance of Phlegm: characterized as having a phlegmatic personality - as in, they were cowardly, unresponsive, and lacking in intellectual ability
- A large amount of Yellow bile: characterized as having a choleric personality - as in, they were generally believed to be obstinate, vengeful, impatient, and easily angered
- Too much Black bile: characterized as having a melancholic personality - as in, they were excessively brooding, gluttonous, and satiric Astrology in the Elizabethan Period was far different from today. Back then, doctors based their ideas on the “the 4 humours” theory. Since the whole world was made up of 4 elements (Air, Fire, Earth, and Water), they thought that the whole body was made up of 4 liquids - Blood, Yellow bile, Black bile, Phlegm. The 4 liquids (humours) had to be kept in constant balance; otherwise they could cause illness and disease. Some of the beliefs about medical concerns were mostly likely based on having an unbalanced amount of humours in the body. To treat this problem, the doctors would let the blood out using their tools or they would use leeches to absorb all the blood out.Other common causes of illnesses were lack of sanitization, poor living conditions, poor diet, poor health care, the bubonic plague and white makeup – (used by the wealthy women in the Elizabethan time. It contained poisonous ingredients) Common Medical Treatments:
- High Blood Pressure: Garlic was common herbal cure for that could cause a decrease in high blood pressure
- Earache: Common remedy was to put a roasted onion in the ear
- Mental Illness: New technique of transfusing blood to treat mental patients which was discovered by Jean-Baptiste Denis, where the arterial blood of a lamb was injected into the patient’s venous system
- Bubonic Plague: remedies like tobacco, arsenic, lily root and even tried toad were used to cure the ill.
- Head Pains: Used sweet-smelling herbs such as roses, lavenders, sage, and bay
- Stomach Pain and Sickness: treated with wormwood, mint, and balm
- Lung Problems: treated using liquorice and comfrey
- Wounds: vinegar was used as a cleaning agent because it was believed that it would kill any disease
- Syphilis: the favoured treatment was mercury but later on, it changed to Gonorrhea
- Tooth ache: Cure for tooth ache was to pull the tooth out without any anesthetics The surgeon would not have had university training, he would have learnt what he knew from other surgeons, from surgical texts or through operating on soldiers injured on the battlefield.
The Surgeon used primitive tools that you might find today in a carpenter`s toolbox. He would have lots of surgical tools such as amputation tools, arrow pullers, hot irons - for stopping bleeding, and bloodletting tools etc.
He was limited in what he could use when it came to using any anesthetics. He may have used alcohol, opium or mandrake to help sedate the patient. In every village you probably would have found a wise woman who was skilled in the use of herbs. She would have learnt her knowledge of herbs through generations of experience, where information of which herbs worked would have been passed down through families. Most poor people would have gone to her instead of the physician as she would have been much cheaper. She had no training at universities; she was self-taught. She would have gathered a lot of the herbs she used from the local area or grown them in her garden. A physician was a medieval doctor. They went to university and studied for many years, studying the well know medical texts and ideas of the time. They were also required to learn such things as mathematics, music, astronomy and even languages like Greek or Latin so that they could understand the texts. A physician would not operate on a patient himself but would appoint a surgeon to do so. His main job was to diagnose what was wrong with the patient and decide what the treatment should be. Women were not allowed to be physicians. A physician would charge a lot of money for his services so only the rich could afford to hire him. The most common diseases in the Elizabethan Era were the bubonic plague, typhoid, scurvy, small pox, syphilis, diphtheria, measles, leprosy, scarlet fever, chicken pox, and dental disease.