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The Lives of Women during World War ||
Transcript of The Lives of Women during World War ||
Lyudmila Pavlichenko, as a Russian girl sniper. She killed 309 German soldiers that were confirmed. She is the most successful female sniper in history.She became the 1st Soviet citizen to visit the White House. After the war, she became a master sniper instructor and trained 80 snipers who are collectively credited with killing more than 2,000 Germans. She was one of 94 Soviet women named a Hero of the Soviet Union who fought in World War ||.
1 million women worked industrial jobs by the December of 1941. The Soviet Union had around 800,000 women serve in army units alongside men. The Soviet's called women who were suspected of collaboration " German Bed Straw" and sent them to the gulags.
The traditional idea for Japanese women as to be a good mother, and a wise wife. On February 2,1942 the Greater Japan Women's Society was created. It was called the GJWS. The society was created by the government in an attempt to mobilize all Japanese women for service. The organization sought to portray a new image for Japanese women. It formed the core of a the Japanese domestic home front. All married women were required to join as were all single women by 1943. The society also had women sacrificing personal luxuries to help the war effort and they also did community service like raising awareness on health/ nutrition,volunteering at military hospitals, participating in relief drives. They also willingly volunteered at factories and on farms.The organization GJWS did not survive the war. The Japanese forced 200,000 "comfort women" from their homes in Korea, China, the Philippines, and Malaya to serve as prostitutes for the Japanese soldiers.
French women who were suspected of over familiarity with German forces had their heads shaved after they were liberated. The french had a resistance movement that women worked for. they composed of 12-20% of the French resistance. The workers decoders, couriers, and operating Resistance newspapers. Georgette "Claude" Gerard led more than 5,000 men and women in the Forces Francaise de I'Interieur. ( French forces of the Interior or FFI) The French government after the war recognized more than 200,000 women for their services. Women fought in the Paris Uprising in 1944 and in multiple other uprisings which earned them permanent spots in the French military after 1945. Between 200-300 are known to have been executed by the Germans. 8,500 were sent to a female concentration camp called Ravensbruck. Only 400 survived.
Poland & Occupied Countries
Even though Poland was occupied they had an army and a resistance group. In the Greek resistance women fought in large numbers with the Balkans combined in them. Around 100,000 women served in the Yugoslav National Liberation Army under Josip Broz's command. The death rate for women was 25 percent , twice that of the men. The Poles created the Emilia Plater Independent Women's Battilion in 1943. The Polish resistance leaders formed the Armia Krajowa. One/seventh of its members were women. More than 20% of the 150,000 people in western Europe's intelligence networks were women.
The Lives of Women during World War ||
How Women were Treated after the War
Women's roles did not really change at first. Many people were ungrateful for what they did to help they're country's win the war. Many societies were very ungrateful of the women who risked their lives fighting. Many of the women and the men wanted to return to traditional roles. Many women were slighted in the time right after the war because of this. They were banned from Italian resistance group parades and were said not to be eligible for certain honors like the Victoria Cross. In America, women were banned admittance into the American Veterans of Foreign Wars. Some found that they're experiences were social liabilities and hid it for the rest of their lives. Historians have come to believe that without women the war would have never been won.
Lola Dolor, Survivor of Japanese Rape Camp in the Philippines
Eileen Nearne was a British spy. She operated a secret radio link from Paris. It was used to drop weapons for the French Resistance and shuttle messages. She was arrested by the Gestapo in July 1944. She was sent to Ravensbruck. She survived what other women were executed for. The Gestapo tortured her by beating her, stripping her naked and submerging her repeatedly in a bath of ice water until she blacked out from lack of oxygen. However, she never revealed the secrets they longed to know. At the time she was 23 years old. She was moved in December 1944 to the Markleberg Camp. She worked on a road repair group for 12 hours a day. While being transferred again, she and two other French women escaped. The American Intelligence Officers thought she was a Nazi Collaborater at first and kept her at a detention center. Until she was verified by her London superiors.
After the war she found it difficult to adjust to a peaceful life. Medical reports say that she was suffering from psychological symptoms. It is said that she withdrew into herself and disregarded all opportunities to receive a celebrity status. "It was a life in the shadows, but I was suited for it.I could be hard and secret.I could be lonely. I could be independent. But I wasn't bored. I liked the work. After the war, I missed it." She died at age 89. Nobody knew she was a spy until the police looked through her possessions.
Eileen Nearne Continued
Kinder, Kiche, Kueche meant children, kitchen and church. Those are the three words that summarized the Nazi idea of women's roles. According to Hitler German women were the internal mother of the people. The understanding of the national socialist was rooted in a deep discrimination and condescension toward women.Before and during the war, both conservatives and women in the National Socialist Movement saw KKK as the beginning of a separate sphere, which women could define their role in society without any sense of competition/discrimination among both genders.
United States Women Propaganda
United States Organizations
, Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Services.
, Woman Air force Service Pilots
, Women's Army Corps,
, is the Women coast guard service & the women marines. The WAVES was created in 1942. The WASPs was created in 1943. At one point WAVES had up to 8,000 officers and 76,000 enlisted women. The WASPs was combined of the WAFS and WFTD. It was disbanded in 1944 due to protests from congress and male pilots who feared more competition. The WAC lasted from 1942-1978. By 1945 more than 150,000 women served. They were the first women to serve formally apart from nurses. Many of them got purple hearts, bronze stars, air medals, and soldier's medals. The organization was so successful that Army Leaders asked Congress to make them permanent in 1946. More than 350,000 women served in uniform including over 74,000 army and navy nurses.
In a spy's world a couple attracted less attention then a lone man wandering around empty streets. In the Women's Land Army over 80,000 women volunteered to become 'Land Girls' they were the people who took over for all the male farmers so that they could join the army. Many partisans were actually citizens in disguise. In Italy female partisans carried messages and supplies back and forth. In the Soviet Union they fought alongside men.
Importance of Women
Chrisp, Peter. World War II: Fighting for Freedom: The Story of the Conflict That Changed the World, 1939-1945. New York: Scholastic, 2010. Print.
Cunningham, Eric. "Greater Japan Women's Association: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.
Janda, Lance. "Women: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.
Livi, Max. "Kinder, Kirche, Kuche: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2014.
WAVES Training in Norman, OK
The German women weren't allowed to participate in military forces. German girl, Maria K. was just 14 years old when she was accused of having a sexual relationship with a Polish national Florian Sp. She admitted that they had kissed and had sex with each other more than once. Although this isn't going against the rules of women and war, it was strongly forbidden for a German citizen to have a relationship with a Polish citizen. Maria was classified as a dishonorable German girl. Maria was the third youngest of 11 siblings and as a child, she was an orphan until her older brother took in all his siblings. Mara's brother was drafted for the war, so his wife and Florian Sp. were left to watch over the family. October 1941, the Gestapo submitted a request regarding Maria. She was taken to reformatories and later, a concentration camp. She received prisoner number 290 and lost her privileges to own a name. Maria suffered from whippings, humiliation and hunger. In 1944, she was released and taken to a school for children's nurses in Berlin.
Overall impact in the U.S.
Many companies in the U.S. at first when the U.S. joined the war did not like the idea of hiring women. Working was not a new experience to women in the U.S., but many people opposed to it because they saw it as women taking unemployed men's possible jobs. They had been told that working was only temporary because of the war. Which means that when the war was over women got demoted and laid off because the men were back from war. After the war once the army commanders had seen what women volunteers could do and that they were majorly successful asked for more and started fighting for women to have permanent positions. After the war though almost all of the men still thought that a women's place was at home taking care of her family. Nothing really seemed able to change most of the U.S.'s opinion on the matter.