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Chapter 15 : Social Psychology

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William Cockrell

on 2 August 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 15 : Social Psychology

Chapter 15 : Social Psychology
What is a group?
"It's hard to define, but I know it when I see it" Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart
At least two people
Common goal
Being Connected
Loyalty to group
Actual Definitions
"A group is two or more people who for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as 'us'"
David Myers
"A collection of at least two people who are doing or being something together"
Roy Baumeister & Brad Bushman
"Groups have unique, emergent properties that differentiate them from a mere aggregate of individuals on three counts: perceived entitativity, perceived volition, and actual behavior"
Susan Fiske
" A group is a typically on-going interaction of multiple, often similar, people who are interdependent and for whom group identification is important"
H. Colleen Sinclair

Good features
Bad features
Social facilitation
Group polarization/risky shift
Common knowledge effect
Social loafing
Evolutionary advantages
Increase in emotional affect
Transactive Memory
Pluralistic ignorance
Minority influence
Social Facilitation
Do we work better in the presence of others?
Evaluation apprehension
Dominant response theory
Give Me Some Proof
Michaels et al. (1982)
Zajonc et al. (1969)
Social Loafing
People exert less energy when working in a group toward a collective goal compared to working alone
Research by Latane, Williams, & Harkins (1979) found that three people clapping alone were louder than six people clapping together
Made worse when individual performance is not measurable
People rarely admit they are social loafing, we accuse others
Group Polarization
The tendency for groups to shift to extreme sides when making decisions compared to a single person
Groups naturally seek consensus
Group similarity is important
Group isolation enhances polarization
Repetition of group ideas strengthens arguments
The tendency for a group to "force" a consensus without considering all rational alternatives
Biased leader
High pressure from outside forces
High or suffering self-esteem
Symptoms of Groupthink
Pressure toward conformity
Reluctance to criticize information
Illusion of invulnerability
Heightened beliefs of morality
Believed unanimity
Avoiding Groupthink
Make group aware of groupthink
Encourage objectivity
Appoint a devil's advocate
Create subgroups
Invite outside consultants
Independent committees
Create individual accountability
suggestions by I.L. Janis (1982)
Minority Influence
Under certain conditions the minority can be persuasive
Minority view maintains consistency
The minority projects self-confidence
Defection of majority members to the minority
The minority does not appear harmful to group
Social compensation
Social inhibition
Social Compensation
An increased effort while working in a group
When individual effort can be measured
When group performance is important to individual
When individual believes others are incompetent
Introduction to Social Psychology
Social Psychology :
the scientific, psychological study of how a person's thoughts and behaviors can be influenced by the presence of others.
Susan Fiske, a prominent social psychologist, argues that the
"need to belong"
is one of the most basic drives among human beings. This means that we seek social interactions and avoid being alone.
It is argued the need to belong is an evolutionary adaptation. Why would this be an evolved response?
Factors that influence social affiliation :
approval, support, security, friendship, and information.
Quantitative comparisons :
comparing different objects or people based on numerical data. Examples include determining average weight, height, age, test scores, etc.
Qualitative (Social) Comparisons :
how can we measure the 2014 Best Picture? This is not numerical data, it is subjective data. With subjective data we use
social comparisons to draw a generalized consensus.
Social Comparisons :
Created by Leon Festinger which explains that people compare themselves or evaluate their experiences against others in their social environment. Think of how you talk about your test scores with your friends after a test.
People automatically know to compare themselves to others of equal skill levels. It would be pointless to compare your writing abilities to Alice Walker, J.K. Rowling, or Michael Cunningham if you were just starting.
Comparing yourself to people better than you tends to cause anxiety, aggression, and learned helplessness. Sometimes it does cause the person to push themselves harder. Comparing yourself against people below you creates narcissistic traits and disdain for others.
The Rules of Attraction
Interpersonal Attraction :
one of the most commonly stated terms in social psychology. Interpersonal attraction refers to a positive opinion of another person.
Interpersonal :
this term is used to imply a relationship between at least two people that creates thoughts or behaviors that would never occur without at least two people (e.g., we don't hold the door open when there is nobody behind us).
Some researchers argue that we form basic opinions (e.g., like or dislike) within minutes of meeting a person. It is also important to realize that most people form opinions before they
the opinions they have formed.
The Laws of Attraction :
physical proximity, physical attractiveness, competence, and similarity, and reciprocity.
Physical proximity :
A famous college dorm study first reported that the closer we live to a person and more frequent we see a person we have higher chances of forming relationships with them.
Physical Attractiveness :
Physically attractive people are constantly rated higher on intelligence, likability, warmth, humor, health, and social skills. Physical attractiveness is VERY important at first, but as the relationship increases this trait becomes the least important. As we get to know a person better our personality influences their attractiveness.
Similarity :
the most important traits of similarity are age, sex, and race/ethnicity. It is argued that similarity may be the strongest rule of attraction. Romantic relationships where the partners are very similar have the highest stability rates whereas highly different couples tend to experience divorce.
Romantic Relationship Studies
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love :
the most scientifically respected theory about love. The three main factors of love are
, and
Intimacy :
the emotional side of love. This is having a psychological attraction to the person. Intimacy is wanting to be near a person because they make you feel good and you want to do the same for them. A high focus on positive reciprocity.
Passion :
physical attraction to the person. Passion primarily stems from visible traits initially but advance to noticing characteristics that are attractive (e.g., @ first you like him for his bangin' body, but eventually you think his laugh is equally attractive). Passion primarily deals with bodily arousal.
Commitment :
often viewed as the outcome of intimacy and passion. This is the desire to create a life together with your significant other.
Passionate Love :
how most relationships start out. There is an intense focus on sexual pleasure, a strong need to be always close to the person, and preoccupation with the relationship. Typically lasts the first 6 months - 1 year of a relationship.
Companionate Love :
as passion declines, the relationship tends to become more intimate. This is where the people become highly dependent on each other. Common statements of companionate love would be "I can't see myself without him/her", "I would be lost without him/her," or "They are my better half".
The presence of commitment has been found to be one of the most reliable predictors of relationship stability. Hundreds of LGBTQ relationship studies find that the lack of "public commitment" is one of the largest reasons these relationships fail.
Consummate Love :
the "ultimate form of love" that combines intimacy, passion, and commitment. Successful, lasting relationships typically consist of consummate love.
What is a group?
No established definition
Group =
people who have something in common, close proximity, respect, and admire their relationship
= a group of people connected by proximity, but nothing else (e.g., people in line together, people in an elevator together, bus passengers, etc.)
Category =
grouping that does not contain a sense of meaning or belonging. Examples = people with brown hair, people with a driver's license, etc.)
Types of Groups
Primary groups :
Family and friends. Most influential on your daily life and decisions. Help shape your identity. Can your primary group be online friends?
Secondary Groups :
Larger group, less intimate (use of social filter), shared interests/tasks, most have a common goal required to achieve. Examples include college class, work, political party.
Voluntary Association:
form of secondary group that is formed due to a mutual interest. Usually not required. North America has a high amount of voluntary associations.
In-group :
your personal group. You feel loyalty to the group and judge other groups by your standards.
Out-group :
other groups. Usually do not like them.
Groups Continued
Reference groups :
People important to you who often come to mind when you are making important decisions. Highly influential.
Social Network :
visual mapping of relationships with the subject as the central point (hub). Easy way to make new connections.
Classic six degrees of separation statements are still debated (Kleinfeld, 2002; Muhamad, 2010)
Technology has drastically altered how we view groups and networking
Status F.A.Q.
Status roles are guidelines of how to act.
Status sets =
having multiple different status roles. Sometimes they are complimentary (Nursery workers and mother), sometimes not (Bouncer and mother).
Ascribed Status =
status that you are assigned when born, you do not work for this status.
Ascribed Status
(The Lucky Ones?)
Achieved Status = Status you earn throughout life.
Achieved Status
(You Betta Work!)
Master Status =
a "primary" status that remains dominate (e.g., race, sex, disabilities, etc).
Role Effects
Role Conflict :
Occurs when roles require discrepant behaviors or beliefs. Problems across roles. Using an earlier example; mother who is also a police officer.
Role Strain:
Happens when there are conflicting opinions or behaviors within one role. Technical support has to be courteous AND time-sensitive; sometimes these two behaviors are mutually exclusive. Problems within one role.
Sign - vehicles
: how we nonverbally communicate our roles
People prefer to understand why others perform specific behaviors. Unfortunately, most behavior goes unexplained in public situations.
Attributions :
to help offset this uneasiness, people form impressions or attributions of why people are performing the behaviors they are (e.g., She's crying because she lost her job vs. She's crying because of ruined Louboutins)
External Attributions :
Believing behavior is due to factors outside of the person's immediate control (e.g., She lost her job because the company is downsizing).
Internal Attributions :
Belief that a person's behavior is due to the primary characteristics (e.g., She lost her job because she is lazy and never shows up).
Fundamental Attribution Error :
We explain other's behavior with internal attributions but explain our own behaviors with external attributions.
Actor-Observer Effect :
We explain our own behaviors with external attributions.
There is a strong link between high rates of internal attribution and higher rates of prejudiced beliefs.
Conformity :
conformity is adapting and responding according to the majority of the group.
The more people in the group, the higher the chance that people will conform.
The more important the issue, the less likely conformity will occur (contrast this with the line experiment).
If just one other person disagrees with the group, the chances of conformity are greatly reduced.
Conformity is highly influential with socially important topics (jury deliberations, minority issues, issues with high amounts of authority).
Many psychological studies of conformity often test the boundaries of what is ethical to research.
With conformity, people are typically not consciously aware they are being influenced by a group.
Compliance :
less extreme form of conformity that does not require a group, the person is aware of the experience, and are typically easier to ignore.
Foot-in-the-door-effect :
getting a person to participate in a very small task increases the chance they will later perform more demanding tasks (e.g., asking people to place political signs in their yard increases the chance of them voting later; donating 1 dollar now may increase the chance of donating 20 dollars a few months later).
Door-in-the-face effect :
very common sales technique. This is where you ask a very unrealistic favor that you know will be denied. After the large request you then mention the less demanding favor that you really want. The person is much more likely to now agree to your request (e.g., asking your parents for 500 dollars today and you are denied, tomorrow you ask for 20 dollars and you will probably get it).
Hartley (1946) study on prejudice
Hartley asked participants to rate their opinions on several racial-ethnic groups.
The researcher included three groups that do not exist: Wallonians, Pireneans, and the Danireans.
The participants with the most negative opinions of factual racial-ethnic groups also reported higher negative opinions towards the
Common sense knowledge on racism was that people created negative opinions towards groups they have had negative experiences with on multiple occasions.
Contact Theory
Contact theory :
theory that more positive encounters with different groups increase overall positive opinions of the group.
A large area of research in Social Psychology
All groups must be on equal status
Must occur frequently (the prejudiced mind recalls negative information quicker than positive information)
Origins of Prejudice
Scapegoating =
when the dominant group blames their trouble on the minority or disadvantage group.
Little control or freedom in personal life (Henslin, 2013)
A classic psychology study primed participants to feel frustrated by an impossible to finish task. After this primer the students reported higher rates of prejudice.
So frustration may lead to prejudice
(Cowen, 1959).
Authoritarian Personality :
A person who scores high on this psychological test is prone to display high rates of narcissism, prejudiced beliefs, conformity, intolerance, respect for authority, etc.
Selective Perception / Sapir Whorf Hypothesis / Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
Social Norms - Indonesia
Social Learning Theory - Bobo Doll
John Lee's Styles of Love
the initial, physical attraction to a person. Most of the experiences are based on positive qualities (i.e., not too realistic).

This is the infatuation love style. Characteristics include: anxiety, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, and headaches. People who adopt a mania love style typically have low self-esteem. They attract others with similar levels of esteem.
friends with benefits, NSA, group dating style behaviors are common for this love style. They avoid commitment, view sex as recreation, and typically do not get jealous.
Storge (STOR-gay):
Similar to companionate love mentioned earlier. This type of love develops over years of being committed. Also, older adults often start relationships at this stage. Usually has the most amicable separations.
Agape (AH-gah-pay)
altruistic, self-sacrificing love. Intense protection, lack of jealousy, or risking your personal health (physical or mental) for your partner are common for this love style.
searching for compatibility. Comes from the word "pragmatist", in other words, a person who is goal oriented. Most supportive of their partners. Perhaps the healthiest love style?
The Original Love Style Survey
The Dark Side of Relationships
People who have high opinions of themselves. Clinically, the common term is "grandiose self-concept". These people tend to have a high self-esteem, are very competitive, believe they are superior and special (read: entitled).
Men are much more likely to be classified as narcissistic. As men age, their risk of becoming narcissistic increases.
Narcissistic people avoid commitment, therefore they tend to reflect the Ludus love style.
one emotion that psychologists argue has very little, if any, positive benefits.
Mate Guarding:

the believed evolutionary reason that jealousy exists. People used to protect their significant other from potential "theft".
Men have higher rates of jealousy than women.
Additional Group Behaviors
Minimal Group Paradigm:
research in the 1970s separated participants into two separate groups by flipping a coin.
The groups had an option to share "money" with the other group or to keep the "money" for themselves.
Participants assigned to groups were highly unlikely to share their fake money with out-group members.
Participants NOT assigned to groups were more likely to share their money with other people.
Competition vs. Cooperation:
Muzafer Sherif is one of the most famous social psychologists. He recruited 22 male students for a study in the 1950s. The boys stayed at a camp for one week.
Sherif separated the boys into two groups: The Eagles and The Rattlers.
In the first week he made the two groups compete in various games and tasks. This caused negative opinions to form for the other group.
The second week he made the two groups work together and he noticed their opinions became more positive.
Social Psychology in the classroom
Pygmalion Effect:
An aspect of the self-fulfilling prophecy. The finding is that if you constantly treat some people better than others, we expect them to excel in however they are being measured.
Jigsaw Classroom:
created by Elliot Aronson. His argument is that you have to force interaction between children of different groups.
In "expert" groups, he assigned children one particular task or assignment to learn. When they mastered that skill, they went back to their original group.
In the original group, each of the children then teach their fellow classmates what they learned in the "expert" group.
This study has been replicated over 800 times! Both children and adults in the workplace benefit.
What's With That Attitude?
the same as an "opinion". It is your automatic, original thought of an idea being presented.
Simple Attitude:
when your attitude and behavior match. An example would be you believe exercising makes you healthy and you also exercise.
Complex Attitude:
when your attitude and behavior do NOT match. For instance, you believe exercising makes you healthy but you still do not exercise.
Think of complex attitudes for the following concepts: seat belts, safe-sex, smoking, studying, and charity.
Attitude Accessibility:
how quick are you able to determine what your attitude is about a topic. Research indicates that the longer it takes for your to acknowledge your attitude, the more likely you will experience complex attitudes.
Mere Exposure Effect:
Similar to the Contact Theory, but it is less focused on people. The research indicates the more you are exposed to an idea, the more accepting you are of it.
Further Details of Attitude
Explicit Attitudes:
attitudes that you are aware of when you think about them.
Imagine if somebody asks you to puppy-sit their dog. If you say "Sure! I love puppies!", that is an example of an explicit attitude.
Implicit Attitude:
attitudes that you are not aware of at the basic cognitive level.
Imagine you have been asked to puppy-sit 6 times now. You have said "no" every time, but you can't really figure out why you do not want to. This is an example of an implicit attitude.
Sometimes implicit attitudes are influenced by memory that we do not intentionally recall (e.g., you buy a product because of a celebrity endorsement but you forgot you watched the commercial).
Cognitive Dissonance:
the feeling people experience when they acknowledge a discrepancy between two beliefs. May also develop with discrepancy between beliefs and actions.
The classic example is you know that smoking causes cancer, but you continue to smoke anyway. This will cause the person to experience cognitive dissonance.
People report anxiety, tension, and hopelessness as common feelings during cognitive dissonance.
Prejudice :
attitudes held by a person that is an affect-laden, unjustified opinion of an individual solely based on group membership.
Discrimination :
The outcome of prejudice is discrimination, a behavior. It is typically classified as unjustified, differential treatment to a person based on group membership.
Stereotypes can be
(a positive example would be that "Asian people are the best at mathematics" whereas a negative stereotype would be " All gay men are sexually promiscuous").
Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination are all products of socialization (Kimmel, 2007; Henslin, 2013).
The belief that certain characteristics apply to every person in a certain group.
Once a person has been exposed to a stereotype enough, these beliefs will become a prejudice (e.g., the person now believes all black men are criminals. This will become a prejudiced belief).
Where stereotypes are highly descriptive, prejudice is usually an automatic positive or negative opinion of a group of people.
Make sure you understand the general "pattern" of the three. Stereotypes form prejudices and prejudices create discriminatory behavior.
Differential Treatment
The Psychology of Prejudice
Sociology would examine prejudice from a societal perspective. Psychology would try to examine prejudice from the individual perspective.
Cognitive level of prejudice:
this is the most basic form of prejudice. People are less aware of their prejudiced beliefs at this point, they are largely unconscious beliefs. Essentially, people are automatically recalling stereotypes they associated with a group and determining they are good or bad unconsciously.
When stereotypes have entered the cognitive level, this means that prejudiced people automatically think about those stereotypes when they encounter a person.
Look at the image of the African-American child. The cognitive level of prejudice explains that people with higher levels of prejudice automatically think those words at the cognitive level when they see the child.
Humans do the exact same thing with age and gender.
Action Figures
Gross Stuff
Video games
Being Dirty
Emotional level of prejudice:
these are the emotions that the prejudiced person experiences when they encounter minorities. These emotional expressions tend to be grouped: fear/envy, distrust/trust, disgust/admiration, contempt/empathy.
When my father used to hear people from other countries speaking a different language in America, he would automatically start cussing. This is an example of an emotional response of prejudice....
People that are susceptible to supporting prejudiced beliefs are not too skilled at reflecting their own emotions. Therefore, they often do not comprehend they are fearful, envious, disgusted, etc.
Different types of Stereotypes
a term used to describe negative stereotypical characteristics.
The most basic level of ethnophaulisms are derogatory names. We do not need to go over the terms, but you are well aware of different negative names we have about groups.
The second level is when people refer to groups based on skewed characteristics. For instance, calling gay men "limp wrists", hispanics "wetbacks", or African-American's "darkies" are all examples of using harmful physical characteristics to describe a person. Most of the time these are not even accurate.
The third level is to explain behavior by describing a group of people. Examples include "don't Jew me" which references somebody is trying to over-charge you. It implies Jewish people are greedy. "That's so gay" is a term used to describe something that is stupid and obviously creates a negative opinion of homosexuals. Saying something is "ghetto" in America, tends to create images of African-Americans.
As you can see, all of these statements are harmful to the group being described.
Hartley (1946) study on prejudice
Hartley asked participants to rate their opinions on several racial-ethnic groups.
The researcher included three groups that do not exist: Wallonians, Pireneans, and the Danireans.
The participants with the most negative opinions of factual racial-ethnic groups also reported higher negative opinions towards the
Common sense knowledge (read: not supported by science) on racism was that people created negative opinions towards groups they have had negative experiences with on multiple occasions.
Contact theory :
theory that more positive encounters with different groups increase overall positive opinions of the group. So the first step, is to get the different groups to actually interact!
All groups must be on equal status. This is the hard part since rarely does the minority have equal power as the majority.
Must occur frequently (the prejudiced mind recalls negative information quicker than positive information)
This research finding supports the statements that people have more negative opinions about groups they have little interactions with.
Research has consistently shown that isolated individuals and groups tend to have higher rates of prejudice.
Group Dynamics
Group Dynamics:
microsocial approach of how groups directly influence each other on a face-to-face basis
Small Group :
group of a numerical size where everybody can interact with each other (family, car pool, lunch table, etc)
Dyad :
highly unique group (no other group is like a dyad), is made of only two people
Potential for highest amounts of intimacy
Most unstable; mutual commitment is necessary
Triad :
three people in a group, two members often compete for attention.
As groups increase numerically they become more stable, but they lose intimacy. Also susceptible to diffusion of responsibility.
Diffusion of Responsibility:
The reliable Social Psychological finding that as a group gets larger, the average amount of output reduces for each individual worker.
The Social Distance Scale
The Social Distance Scale :
A scale to measure prejudice among U.S. college students
High social distance meant high negative prejudice
The participants are asked how willing they are to participate in numerous activities with 30 different racial groups. They are asked to respond on the traditional 7 point scale of 1 (acceptance) to 7 (barring them from the country).
When students take this test today, we find that prejudiced opinions have reduced in each successive generation (or they are better at hiding now). They also see very few differences between minorities now.
Questions on the Social Distance Scale
Remember, with the Social Distance Scale,
you ask the same questions
for each minority group.
For example, the test may start with asking the participant to answer the questions while thinking about African-Americans.
Next, the participant would be asked the same questions again but be requested to answer them in response to people from Afghanistan.
All answers are given on a 1-7 scale with 1(agree) to 7 (strongly disagree)
The Actual Questions
1) Would accept _______ marrying into my family (1 point)
2) Would accept _______ as a personal friend (2 points)
3) Would accept _____ as my neighbor (3 point)
4) Would work in the same office with ______ (4 points)
5) Would only have ________ as an acquaintances (5 points)
6) Would only have _________ as visitors in my country (6 points)
7) Would bar __________ from entering my country (7 points)
Minority and Dominant Groups
Minority group :
a group of people who receive unequal treatment compared to the majority group
Their culture, traditions, or beliefs are generally devalued by the main group
The majority group can control the freedom of the minority group (e.g., Japanese-Americans being forced into internment camps during WWII)
Often practice endogamy (marrying within their own group)
Strong sense of group solidarity and cohesiveness
Does not have to be a
numerical minority
Dominant Group :
the group that controls power and resources who exercise control over minority groups
Some members believe they are "naturally superior"
Often has direct influence over politics (which helps their chances at keeping power from minority groups)
Racial - Ethnic Relations
Assimilation :
a minority group becomes a part of the mainstream.
Forced Assimilation
Permissible Assimilation
Multiculturalism / Pluralism :
the promotion of a diversity of cultures, races, and ethnic groups living together. Groups are not expected to disown their inherited cultures, and appreciation of multiple cultures is promoted.
We Become The Roles We Play?
perhaps the oldest social organization. We need to think about our very distant (10,000 years ago) ancestors.
This group was more dependent on the environment than any other social structure. This group
harvested the environment
where we
manipulate the environment
Hunter-Gatherers are called nomadic because they left lands when the resources were depleted. Today, the few left are isolated.
This social structure has largely died out. Only a handful of societies still actually follow this form of social organization.
Modern Hunter-Gatherer Societies:
The Australian Aborigines, The Sentenelese Tribe on Adamans Island, and the Mbuti tribe in the Congo rainforests.
Hunter-Gatherer societies must remain small (the largest are usually 50-60 people) or they will not be able to feed everybody.
Hunter-Gatherer Societies
"The Social Construction of Reality" by Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann is one of the most popular books in the sociological field.
The authors argue that reality is created through repetition and that society is a "physical manifestation of our collective consciousness".
the process of repeating behaviors so that it becomes ingrained in your daily life. The focus is actually on large groups of people doing the same behavior.
When one person "clocked" in to work it didn't really mean anything. It was largely a personal experience for that one person.
When millions of people starting "clocking in" every morning, it became a public concept of our collective reality. Thus, we now even have a term to reference this behavior.
Thomas Theorem:
"If men define their situations as real, they are real in their consequences". This was the original basis of the self-fulfilling prophecy.
Imagine 1 person who is convinced a gas shortage is about to occur. He runs to the gas station and fills up three vehicles while people watch him. Other people are going to follow his behavior and do the same. If thousands of people do this---we actually would have a gas shortage.
Meaning, sometimes our perception of reality becomes so real to us that it influences others and actually becomes "true".
What is "Reality" anyway?
Factors of Global Stratification
When the planet was more isolated, global stratification was not a concept. Interaction of different groups was necessary for stratification to occur.
Many sociologists and historians argue that the Industrial Revolution is responsible for the differences in stratification that the world has now.
Countries that embraced the Industrial Revolution experienced an increase in standard of living whereas the countries that did not use technology experienced little to no growth. This caused a sharp difference in cultural standards of living.
The more powerful countries (e.g., England, Germany, France, America, etc) started taking advantage of the resources from less industrialized countries. The more powerful countries became richer instead of the less industrialized countries (this is colonialism).
Millennium Project:
a global initiative to reduce worldwide poverty. The United Nations asked that industrialized countries donate .7% of their gross national icome to developing countries. http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/index.htm
GDP (Gross Domestic Product):
a country's average national wealth per person. This is the most common measurement for standard of living.
The GDP is mainly calculated by adding the income of all citizens in the nation.
GNI (Gross National Income):
a measurement to determine if the country can outsource good for sell.
PPP (Purchasing Power Parity):
a measurement that determines if a country can afford to import goods.
Steps to Reduce Global Inequality
The United Nations created the Millennium Development Goals. The idea was to reduce global inequality.
Eradicate Extreme Povery and Hunger
Universal Primary Education
Gender Equality and Empower Women
Reduce Child Mortality
Improve Maternal Health
Reduce HIV/AIDS and malaria
Ensure Environmental Sustainablity
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