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White America's static characterization of black women's identity before, during, and after emancipation

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Molleigh Hughes

on 2 February 2013

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Transcript of White America's static characterization of black women's identity before, during, and after emancipation

An exploration and analysis of society's stereotypes of black women over one hundred years White America's static characterization of black women's identity before, during, and after
emancipation The Conclusion... Wash-day--Baton Rouge. 2012. Photograph. Proclaiming Emancipation, William L. Clements Library, Hatcher Graduate Library, Ann Abor. Simmons Civil War Sketchbook. By Harry A. Simmons. N.p.: n.p., ca. 1862. N. pag. Print. PLACEMENT OF ADDITIONAL TWELVE IMAGES Procter & Gamble Company. Ivory Soap 99 44/100% Pure. Digital image. Archives, Manuscripts, Photographs Catalog. Smithsonian Institute Research Information System (SIRIS), n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. ca. 1918. Contained in: Ivory Soap Advertising Collection, 1883-1998. 1918 1917 Procter & Gamble Company. Ivory Soap 99 44/100 Per Cent. Pure. Digital image. Archives, Manuscripts, Photographs Catalog. Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS), n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. ca. 1917. Contained in Ivory Soap Advertising Collection, 1883-1998. Johnson, William H. Woman Ironing. Digital image. Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery. Smithsonian Institute, n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. ca. 1944 1944 Johnson, William H. African Woman--Study in Tunis. Digital image. Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery. Smithsonian Institute, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. ca. 1932 1932 Scurlock, Addison N. NAACP Women's Service Group. Digital image. Archives, Manuscripts, Photographs Catalog. Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS), n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.ca.1921. Scurlock Studio Records, ca. 1905-1994, Archives Center, National Museum of American History. 1921 Waud, Alfred Rudolph. Drawing. Negro Family, Probably Named Canfield. Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2012.ca. 1866. New Orleans (LA)., The Historic New Orleans Collection. 1866 1890-91 Forbes, Edwin. Print. Illustration for Edwin Forbes, Thirty Years After: An Artisti's Story of the Great Civil War, 2 Vols. (New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1890--91), Vol. II, P. 278: Waiting for Dinner. Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012.ca. 1890--91. Cambridge (MA)., Widener Library. Harvard University. 1871 Waud, Alfred Rudolph. Drawing. Pupils in the Negro School, Calhoun St., Charleston, SC. Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.ca. 1871. Pencil/ ; Support: Brown Tinited Paper. New Orleans (LA)., The Historic New Orleans Collection. 1849 Gilbert, John. Drawing. Black Woman with Basket of Fruit. Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2012.ca. 1849. Wash and body color. London., Guildhall Art Gallery., Bequeathed by Captain Dyer 1905. 1858 Fuller, George. Drawing. Alabama Sketchbook (78 pages). Page 32: Scene in a laundry yard in Alabama. Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2012.27 January 1858. Pencil and ink wash/ ; Support: Paper. Collection: Private Collection (Descendants of George Fuller) Gaul, William Gilbert. Painting. Picking Cotton. Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012.ca. after 1904 1904 Carlton, William Tolman. Painting. Watch Meeting Dec. 31st 1862. Waiting for the Hour (also Called The Hour of Emancipation). Digital image. ARTstor. ARTstor, Inc., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012.ca. 1866. Houston (TX)., Collection: Menil Foundation Collection. 1866 The theme of the exhibit... The following twelve images have been chosen to help interpret how America characterized the identity of black women in the United States before, during, and after the enactment of the Emancipation Proclamation. Through the exploration and understanding of America’s perspective of black women, the social realities of this politically radical era may be revealed. These additional twelve images would be placed after the Harry A. Simmons sketch entitled “Wash-day. Baton Rouge”, because this is one of the only images of black women through out the exhibit, and the image gives insight into the identity of a black woman through the eyes of white America. In this case, a traveling solider sketches several black women washing clothes by the river with emphasis on the body shape and size of the women, as well as the labor they are performing. Additionally, none of the women are given individualizing features or traits. Therefore, in 1862 during the Reconstruction era, this traveling solider seems to characterize the identity of these black women through their labor purposes and the shape of their bodies. The following twelve images are chronologically placed in order to help understand any change in the identity of black women over a one hundred year period that includes images from before and after the Civil War. The political does not change the social
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