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Transcript of 2018 Pragmatics
The study of 'intended speaker meaning'
The study of 'invisible meaning/ how we recognize what is meant when it isn't actually said (or written).
Linguistic context/ co-text- co-text of a word is a set of other words used in the same phrase or sentence.
E.g. Bank - steep or muddy
"I'm going to the bank to cash a cheque".
Some words cannot be interpreted at all
unless the physical context (of the speaker)
E.g. You'll have to come here tomorrow.
I want that bag.
Person deixis- person (me, you, him, them)
Place deixis- location (here, there, yonder)
Time deixis- time (now, then, tonight, last week)
An act by which a speaker ( or writer)
uses language to enable listener (or reader)
to identify something.
Any additional information used by the listener to connect what is said to what must be meant.
A: Can I look at your Chomsky?
B: Sure, it's on the shelf.
Can I borrow your book?
Yeah, it's on the table.
it (anaphoric expression)
connection between referent and anaphora
may not always be direct
I was waiting for the bus, he just drove by
Assumption made by the speaker (or writer)
E.g. Your sister is waiting outside for you.
When did you move to Shah Alam?
How speakers intend us to take (or, interpret the function of) what they say.
The use of the term speech act covers 'actions' such as 'requesting', 'commanding', 'questioning', and 'giving'.
Direct speech act
Indirect speech act
Can you swim?
Do you know where is the cathedral?
Can you pass the salt?
The concept of 'face' -your public self-image
Showing awareness of another person's face.
Face threatening act
E.g. Give me that paper! (direct speech act)
Could you pass me that pen, please? (indirect speech act)