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SCUBA

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by

Ayesha Quraishi

on 2 March 2014

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Transcript of SCUBA

Necessary Equipment/Gear
GAS LAWS
A Decade Later.....(1942-1946)
Jacques-Yves Cousteau & Emile Gagnan invented the
AQUA LUNG
.
SCUBA
Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
Scuba diving is a recreational activity; it's also used to observe marine life
From Novice to Expert
SCUBA Diving for Beginners

The Beginning of a New Era
Air-assisted underwater exploration began in the 1700s. It was an unthinkable luxury-only VERY rich people could afford it.
By the1980s.....
SCUBA became a multi-billion dollar industry
SCUBA became affordable, meaning the wealthy were not the only ones participating
The SPORT of Scuba Diving was born
Boyle's Law
Charles' Law
Henry's Law
Dalton's Law

presented to you by Explorer's Scuba Shop
Advances in the engineering of valves and compressed air tanks in the 1930s produced what we call SCUBA today.
The
Aqua Lung
delivers pressurized air only when the diver breathes by the use of pressure valves.
Pressure Valve:
Aqua Lung
Rebreather
Mask
Booties
Swim Fins
Weights and Belt
Regulator
Buoyancy Control Device (BCD)
Exposure Suit
tank of compressed air gas
supplied to the diver through a regulator
open circuit
exhaled gas released into water
air is compressed about 200 times to the pressure of the air in the atmosphere
compressed air contains nitrogen and oxygen
an alternative to Aqua Lung
tank of compressed gas breathed by the diver through a regulator
recycles exhaled gas
closed circuit
diver can stay under water longer because of the reusing of his or her air
helps the diver see the beautiful underwater world!
protects the diver's eyes from the pressurized water
keeps feet snug and warm
protects feet from underwater wild-life
protects feet from cuts, burns, and rough boat decks
swim fins help divers swim through the water using the least amount of energy
without swim fins, SCUBA diving is impossible
helps the SCUBA diver stay afloat in the water (i.e. NOT SINK)
takes the diver's weight, wet suit, and equipment into account
delivers air from the diver's rebreather or aqua lung at the right pressure when the diver inhales
Stage 1: connects hose to the tank
Stage 2: contraption behind mouthpiece
So you think you're an Expert now?.... Not Yet! Now, we have to go over the gas laws a SCUBA takes into account and the dangers associated with SCUBA :)
Formula: PV=k
relates the volume and pressure of a gas at a constant temperature
k does not need to be known to understand the relationship between P & V
the pressure, the volume
the volume, the pressure
demonstrates what happens during ascent and descent while scuba diving
**as you descend pressure increases and volume decreases
**as you ascend, volume increases and pressure decreases
do not hold your breath as you ascend because the air in your lungs can expand beyond capacity; they may even explode!
you HAVE to equalize the pressure from the mask and water during ascent and descent
equalize by pinching your nose and blowing
pressure of gas
volume of gas
constant
BAROTRAUMA &
Boyle's Law
caused by increased underwater pressure during descent and ascent
affects air pocket in the middle ear
severe pain and injury to middle ear
PREVENTION:
do not descend or ascend too fast becuse you will not be able to equalize fast enough
equalize by pinching nose and blowing to push more air into the middle ear
AQUA LUNG
Rebreather
Mask
Booties
Fins
Weights and Belt
Regulator
jacket that holds all of the diver's gear
allows the diver to float comfortably at the touch of a button
deflatable and inflatable
holds gas tank
BCD
Exposure Suit
insulates the diver for warmth
protects diver from scrapes
Symptoms:
nose bleeding
diziness
ear pain
slight hearing loss
Boyle's Law Graph:
Formula: V1 V2
T1 T2
describes the direct relationship of temperature and volume of a gas
temperature has to be in Kelvins
cooling a gas decreases it's volume

example of this law in real life:
gas tank exploding because it's left in the trunk of a car on a hot summer day
Volume 1
Volume 2
Temperature 1 of gas
Temperature 2 of gas
Temperature
=
Volume
(Vice Versa)
Charles's Law Graph:
Formula: P=KC
Henry stated that the mass of a gas which dissolves in a volume of liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas
at higher pressure, our bodies absorb more gasses
partial pressure of the gas solute
Henry's Law constant
concentration
of gas
THE "BENDS" &
Henry's Law
aka Decompression
causes aching joints, skin rash, paralysis, or even death
due to increased underwater pressure, the diver's body tissues absorb more nitrogen (a gas)
Prevention:
divers should return to surface in monitored intervals to control his or her rate of nitrogen release
breath normally
don't exercise for at least 12 hours before you dive
Symptoms:
joint pain
dizinesss
Treatment:
must be performed immediately
oxygen therapy
recompression treatment in a recompression chamber
Formula: P=p1+p2+p3....Pn
total pressure
partial pressure
partial pressure
partial pressure
partial pressure
pressure exerted by a mixture of gases= sum of the pressures which would be exerted by the gases individually
gases tend to compress similarly
mixed gases stay in the same proportion under pressure
humans absorb gases in the same proportion at any depth
this law allows for scientists to estimate gas levels in humans
NITROGEN NARCOSIS &
Henry's Law
+
Dalton's Law
impairs judgement and sensory perception (you act as if you are drunk)
effect of extra nitrogen gas in body; body absorbs mostly nitrogen underwater (
Dalton's Law
)
the deeper a diver dives, the more nitrogen he or consumes (
Henry's Law
)
Prevention:
do not dive deeper than 100 feet (or less) if you don't feel well
Symptoms:
wooziness
loss of balance
delayed reaction time
Treatment:
immediate controlled ascent to surface
administration of Oxygen gas
Treatment:
anelgesics
antibiotics
steroids
OXYGEN TOXICITY &
Dalton's Law
a diver absorbs extra oxygen under higher underwater pressure
partial pressures of oxygen combine, giving the diver extra oxygen
a lot of oxygen can become toxic
many deep divers get this illness because they go below 135 feet
can cause seizures, drowning to death, and/or unconsciousness
Prevention:
never exceeds an oxygen partial pressure of 1.4 bar
try not to dive more than 135 feet
Symptoms:
tunnel vision
twitching
nausea
ringing in ears
Treatment:
hyperbaric chamber
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Graph:
GAS EMBOLISMS &
Boyle's Law
occurs when gas bubbles enter arteries or veins because of increased pressure underwater
Pulmonary Gas Embolism:
lungs swell and even pop
Air Embolism:
air bubble that forms clots in arteries and block blood flow
Prevention:
make slow and controlled ascents to surface
NEVER hold your breath
Symptoms:
difficulty breathing
chest pain
stroke
Treatment:
sitting up
surgery
adrenaline
hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Congratulations, YOU are an Expert Novice!!
WORKS CITED:

Barotrauma - Care Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/cg/
barotrauma.html
Campbell, E. (2010, October 6). Nitrogen narcosis. Retrieved from http://
www.scuba-doc.com/nitronarc.html
Denoble, P. J. (2013, January). Alert Diver | Understanding Oxygen Toxicity.
Retrieved from http://www.alertdiver.com/Oxygen_Toxicity
HowStuffWorks Inc. (2000, April 1). HowStuffWorks "What causes 'the
bends'?". Retrieved from http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/water-sports/question101.htm
Nitrogen Narcosis | Dangers of Scuba Diving. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://
www.virtualhook.co.uk/Nitrogen_Narcosis_/
Richard, M. E. (n.d.). Air or Gas Embolism - Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical
Society. Retrieved from http://membership.uhms.org/?page=AGE
Rose, K. (2012, August 20). Air Embolism: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis.
Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/air-embolism#Treatments
The Scuba Guide (n.d.). Scuba Diving. Retrieved from http://
www.thescubaguide.com/introduction/
Smith, D., & Crew, M. (2013, January 20). Pompeii-Bastille [Audio podcast].
Thomas, E. (n.d.). What Are the Dangers of Scuba Diving? | USA Today.
Retrieved from http://traveltips.usatoday.com/dangers-scuba-diving-2492.html
Wikipedia (2014, February 28). Scuba diving - Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia. Retrieved March 2, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scuba_diving
Statistics:
Fatalities
1 out of 211,864 divers die during or after their dive
Main Causes of Fatalities:
pre-existing disease in diver
poor buoyancy control
missed decompression stops
equipment issues
violent water movement
Buoyancy:
the ability or tendency to float in water
a diver must be able to control his or her buoyancy during ascent and descent because there are many dangers associated with bad buoyancy
Pressure:
amount of force per unit area
Full transcript