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Chapter 24 The Enlightenment: The Promise of Reason

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Cecilia Bolich

on 13 October 2010

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Transcript of Chapter 24 The Enlightenment: The Promise of Reason

The Enlightenment: The Promise of Reason
ca. 1650-1800 Age of Reason Increased literacy Secular views Natural Law Life, liberty, property, and fair treatment by the ruling order Progress = Better understanding of the human condition Anthropology Sociology Economics Political Science Liberty and Political Theory Thomas Hobbes John Locke SOCIAL CONTRACT Individuals give up a portion of their freedom to the governing body Selfish, greedy, and nasty Ultimate authority = Peace and Security Government exists only to protect natural rights
and individual happiness Naturally equal, free, and capable of defining the common good The Birth of Economic Theory Laissez-faire The Philosophes The Crusade for Progress Nicolas de Condorcet
1743-1794 Mary Wollstonecraft
1759-1797 Gathering to discuss morality
politics
science
religion and to voice opinions fashion
arts SALON Philosophes- (French, "philosophers")
Intellectuals of the Enlightenment = Classical humanists
Secular
Social Denis Diderot (1713-1784) Encyclopedie Literally-"allow to act;" an economic policy
of nonintereference by the state

Government interference=undesirable Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
1614-1716 Cesare de Beccaria
1738-1794 Enlightenment Literature The Journalistic Essay The Modern Novel Poet of the Enlightenment Newspaper
Encyclopedia
Novel
Symphony An agreement made between citizens leading
to the establishment of the state Chapter 13 Chapter 17 Chapter 30 Without civil society and the state- "war of every man against every man"
(qtd. in Fiero 99) Three basic causes of conflict for humanity before the founding of a state: competition, lack of confidence, and glory. "The first maketh men invade for gain; the second, for safety; and the third, for reputation" (qtd. in Fiero 99). Commonwealth
Provides restraint Sovereign Representative
Essential rights=gives safety to the people
Without:
- - - war with every other man - - - Individuals are better developed
without restraint by absolute rulers Government-
founded by the consent of the governed Montesquieu and Jefferson Pioneered sociology Investigated climate and custom
on human conduct Slavery-abnormal
and evil Separation of powers:
executive
legislative
judicial
Each would monitor the others=
balanced government 1632-1704 1588-1679 1743-1826 1689-1755 (1748) (1651) (1689) (1776) Government-power from the people People:
life
liberty
pursuit of happiness Individuals can own
-land
-goods
-slaves 1723-1790 (1776) Greatest resource:
x Money
x Land
- Human Labor Capitalist ideas- -
Individual self-interest
guides the economy

LAW of supply and demand Encyclopedie
(1751-1752) Philosophers- Intellectuals
Interests: mainly secular, not spiritual
God- Creator, not Redeemer Dispel ignorance and transform society Largest work of contemporary
knowledge
social
philosophic
artistic
scientific
technological 1706-1749 Translated numerous works
Virgil Horace Ovid
into French
Began production on French annotation
of Newton's Principia Voltaire deemed her
"a great man" Humans live in perfect harmony
with God and nature Principle of sufficient reason-
There must be a reason or purpose for everything

Including EVIL On Crimes and Punishment Torturing criminals
does NOT
prevent crime Rehabilitation Human history --- proves march towards improvement Sketch for a Historical Picture of the
Progress of the Human Mind Human nature prefected by reason Errors in politics and morals=philosophic or scientific errors Annihilate prejudices!! Championed sex equality A Vindication of the Rights of Woman British intellectual Attacked female stereotypes AND criticized women for embracing these roles Reason and an education created virtue Alexander Pope
1688-1744 Social criticism Designed to address the
middle class Informal prose style-
conversational Brought topics being discussed in the salons Increase in cities Rising middle class + Neoclassicist Essay on Man Heroic couplet Translated Homer's works A pair of rhymed lines in iambic
pentameter that reaches completion
in structure and sense at the end of
the second line "True ease in writing comes from art, not chance,/
As those move easiest who have learned to dance." Madame du Chatalet The Encyclopedic Cast of Mind Emphasized the accumulation, codification, and preservation of knowledge Most notable poem Assesses humanity's place "Whatever is, is right" (qtd. in Fiero 114)
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