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Respiratory System

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by

Jenna Farmer

on 1 January 2014

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Transcript of Respiratory System

Respiratory System
Mechanics
The Respiratory system's main job is gas exchange, the uptake of oxygen from the atmosphere and the discharge of carbon dioxide. This is accpomplished in the lungs.
Breathing Rate
Breathing is regulated by automatic mechanisms in the brain. The breathing control centers are in the medulla oblongata and the pon regions of the brain. The pons aid the medulla in setting the basic breathing rhythm, which sends its signal to the aorta and careotid arteries. these arteries measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations and pH in cerebrospinal (tissue) fluid. The medulla responds to these measurments by increasing the rate and depth of breathing when pH drops. The medulla also increases breathing when it receives signals from the aorta and carotiod arteries that the oxygen level is too low. It increases breathing to eliminate the Carbon dioxide when it is exhaled. When you hypervenelate, there rapid breathing confuses the breathing control system because it purges the blood with CO2. The center stops the breathing until CO2 levels increase or oxygen levels decrease.
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
All gases have a partial pressure, which is the amount of pressure excerted by a particular gas in a mixture of gasses. Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in the blood are diffused into and out of the lungs because of the difference in partial pressure. When blood from the pulmonary arteries arrives at the lungs, it has a lower partial pressure of oxygen and a higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide compared to the air in the avioli, which is filled with inspired air fromthe lungs. Gasses diffuse down pressure gradients until equilibrium is reached. When the blood enters the aviolar capillaries, the CO2 diffuses out of the blood and the oxygen from the freshly inhaled air diffuses into the blood. The blood, now with increased oxygen and decreased carbon dioxide pressures, returns to the heart and is pumped to the systolic circuit. When the blod reaches the tissues, the Oxygen diffuses out and the carbon dioxide from cellular respiration within the tissues diffuses into the blood. The blood is then returned back to the lungs where it will again exchange gases with the alveoli.
A Closer Look
What goes on between the alveoli and the Capillaries?
As humans, we use negative pressure breathing, and we pull air into our lungs. When the chest cavity expands, the volume inside the lungs match the changes. The lungs expand as a result of contraction of the rib muscles that pull the ribcage upward, and the diaphragm, a sheet of skeletal muscle that forms on the bottom wall of the chest cavity and expands the cavity by descending during an inhalation. When the lungs expand, the pressure within them becomes lower than that in the atmoshphere, sp the oxygen rushes down the breathing tubes into the alveoli and to the lungs.
Inhaling
Exhaling
When you exhale, your diaphragm and rib muscles relax, reducing the lung volume, which increases the air pressure within the alveoli, forcing the air out of the body through the breathing tubes. Your body needs to go through carbon dioxide removal in order to make empty the lungs so you can inhale oxygen to meet the oxygen demand and supply the rest of the body. The expired air contains carbon dioxide, which you get rid of in the atmosphere and prepare to inhale once again.
A system of branching ducts convey air to the lungs. The airways start at the nose, where air is inhaled, filtered by hairs, warmed and humpidified. Then the air travels through the
nasal cavity.

It then goes to the intersection of the paths for air and food called the
pharynx
.
The
Larynx
moves up, opening the windpipe for food to go down the
esophagus
.
When the Larynx is down the air can pass through the
trachea
.
The trachea forks into two
bonchi
, each leading to a lung.
The bronchus branches into smaller tubes called
bronchioles
.
At the tips of the smallest bronchioles, there are small air sacs called
alveoli
, which diffuse the oxygen into the lungs and receive the Carbon Dioxide from the lungs. Once the
lungs
take in oxygen it is sent through tiny capillaries into the blood for the circulatory system to distribute throughout the body.
diaphragm
The pH in the cerebrospinal fluid is mainly determined by the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. The Carbon dioxide diffuses through the blood into the fluid, where it reacts with water and forms carbonic acid, which lowers the pH. Dangerous levels of Carbon dioxide is avioded by transport through hemoglobin and transport through the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions.
Oxygen has a low solubility in water, and therefore, in the blood. Because of this, oxygen is often transported by respiratory pigments, which circulate within the blood. Hemoglobin, which contains iron atoms, is able to bind to four oxygen atoms and circulate it throughout the blood.
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