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Aice Global Perspectives Paper 3

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Anays Hernandez

on 8 April 2016

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Transcript of Aice Global Perspectives Paper 3

Topic Question
To what extend does the professionalization of farming aid the advancement of agriculture?
Cultural Stand point
Conclusion
Conclusion
Conclusion
Aice Global Perspectives
Paper 3
Anays Hernandez
Evelyn Tapanes
Sabrina Garcia
Soleil Lobato
Period 6 / November 16, 2015

Economic Standpoint
Conclusion
Technology Standpoint
Thank you!
Agronomics
Agronomics is known an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fibre.
Agronomics grew to prominence around the turn of the 20th century.
According to the USDA since the 1970's around the world, agronomics has focused on seven main topics: risk and uncertainty, food and consumer economics, prices and incomes, market structures, trade and development, technical change, and human capital.
Political Standpoint
Aid for Farmers
We know that markets can be a great way to give fresh food to consumers, but does it aid the economy?
According to an article by the "Project for Public Spaces in the United States," in Seattle,WA 2002; the market is estimated to have a gross revenue of $87 million, which translates to almost $4 million in taxes to the city, country, and state.
In Portland, OR; in 2008, the farmers market accounted for $17 million of the regional economic impact.

U.S Benifits/Losses for Farmers
The government provides many "programs" such as the Agricultural Conservation Easement Program.
According to an article by Chris Edwards from the Cato Institute states that, "$10 billion and $30 billion in cash subsidies to farmers and owners of farmland each year." (2010)
Farm policies however, have been "ripping off" American taxpayers, as most of their money goes to aiding farmers.
Another article by Tom Coburn from the Economist states that, "most of the money goes to big, rich farmers producing staple commodities such as corn and soyabeans in states such as Iowa." (2015)
Small farmers might not get so much help from the government.
Agronomics in China
Agriculture is a huge industry in China, it is actually first in worldwide farm input.
According to Ashley Dean, from Standford's FSE institute, "China’s commitment to agricultural development over the last thirty years has dramatically transformed the country’s economy."
Scott Rozella spoke on how the economy in China has risen rapidly due to the agricultural development in the country during the Global Food Policy Series back in April, 2013.
She also outweighs the negatives, on how farmers are aging and new generations most likely won't become farmers, which can lead to huge amounts of instability and economic drops.
China's Farming Now Becoming an Economic Drag
Ian Johnson from the New York Times relays how China has been declining in their economy, "Frustrated by how little they earn, the ablest farmers have migrated to cities, hollowing out this rural district in the Chinese heartland." (2014)
Johnson talks about how China has been trying to implement new policies to help out farmers, but farmers now are becoming too poor and have had to give up farming.
Farmers in China even claim that the more grain you plant, the more money you lose.
Agronomics in India
India ranks second worldwide in farm output, though the economic contribution in agriculture is declining.
Delhi from the Economist gives views on the agronomic decline in India, "About 600m Indians, or roughly half the population, depend upon growing crops or rearing animals to survive. Many farming practices, along with India’s agricultural markets, infrastructure, insurance and rules on leasing land, have barely changed in decades." (2015)
New policies and reforms should be implemented in India, their economy will not only decline, but their population will decline as well.
As the population grows, the average plot size declines.
Agriculture Development in India Will Continue to Decline
According to an article by Mk Venu, "As India stares at the fourth consecutive drought year, the prospect of a negative growth in food grain production seems real for 2015-16." (2015
India has faced four back-to-back drought years, worsening their agriculture and economic development.
The Prime Minister of India though, has stated that they are making it thir top priority to ensure that farmers get money back.
The professionalization of farming greatly aids the advancement of agriculture, as farmers need to have benefits in their work field to help agriculture development, and economic development
As seen, the economy is greatly determined by agricultural factors, if crops and farmers are doing well, so does the economy as production/trading/selling of goods bring in money for governments.
Farmers in many countries need to have more benifits, which the project we are focusing on will provide, improving the agriculture development and the economy.
Food Policies Are Life Savers!

In order to achieve professionalism in agriculture, food policies need to be changed and added.

Without them, food would be unsafe to eat

Food policies give the government the right to control who food is grown, processed, and distributed
Isn't That What The FDA Is For?
FDA stands for Food and Drug Administration

The FDA is only run in America

According to Fda.gov, their responsibility is to protect the "public health by assuring their safety"

Did you know the FDA allows 65% of meat to be artificial and full of chemicals?
Weather Plays a Big Role
Many farms a year get destroyed due to poor weather conditions
According to the 'Global Food Crisis' precautions should be made to keep the food industry running
Droughts and floods are the main disasters that destroy farms
A code should be created that will involve crop life saving techniques and the cultivation of low- water requiring crops
Along with that, their should be plans that every farmer should follow in case of emergency
According to 'The Global Food Crisis' India has the "technological and economic capability to demonstrate how farming systems can be adjusted" due to weather
India should except some harsh weather soon according to 'Times Of India'
They are expected to face extreme rain and heat.
The codes mentioned may help them
India's Weather problem
India's Food Policies
India's main problem is malnutrition and food security. (like every country in the world)
According to 'William Thomson', the reason for malnutrition in India isn't so much a lack of food but an inefficient supply chain
For example, most of their tomatoes rot while in transit.
Their food is also very expensive.
In July 2012, 22 children died from eating a school meal
The meal was kept in containers that were previously used for insecticides.
Their main problem is they have no where to keep their produced food so it all goes to waste
Due to insufficient road networks and transportation, the food is left to rot
U.S' Food Problem
Due to a huge population, America needs to produce enough food for millions of people
There is no national food policy, where no plan is agreed for managing the american food system as a whole.
Machines have replaced human jobs
How much food that can be produced is more important than whats in it
What is the professionalization of farming?
Professionalization of farmers is identified as a potential resource to advance transition to multifunctional landscapes and territorial development.
How is the professionalization of farming affecting farmers?
In the U.S.
Allow farmers to feed the country
They are loosing money
Allows for the growth of farms
Aids farmers by creating plants that can with stand harsh conditions
Aids farmers to work time efficiently
Protection of livestock
How is the professionalization of farming affecting farmers?
In China
In China farmers don't have their own land
Techniques have helped to feed the large population
They can now create the perfect animal
Has allowed for farmers to communicate
New ways of planting have saved space allowing the government to plant more
China's Food Problem
According to 'Food Safety News' Food safety has always been an issue in China due to lack of knowledge about contamination and hygiene standards.
Many have conspired that government officials have their own private farms with safe food supply.
Money is one cause of their food security issues
According to the article, chemicals are used because farmers don't have too much profit due to government control. They do what they have to make ends meet.
How is the professionalization of farming affecting farmers?
In India
Has allowed farmers to overcome heavy rain and flooding
They can now fight through climate changes
Less loss
Pros & Cons
For Farmers
Pros
Farmers would still be dependent on animals
Less people to be doing manual labor
Less maintenance
Cons
The professionalization of farming has mainly aided several countries and has made is easier to keep up with the demand for food.
Along with that it has taken the place of many workers leaving them with no jobs.
Sources
https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/how-a-national-food-policy-could-save-millions-of-american-lives/2014/11/07/89c55e16-637f-11e4-836c-83bc4f26eb67_story.html
http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2014/07/chinas-food-safety-issues-are-worse-than-you-thought/#.VklaCXarTIU
http://www.forbes.com/sites/jackperkowski/2014/09/25/chinas-growing-food-problemopportunity/
http://www.theglobalist.com/indias-food-crises-close-up/
Obesity at its finest
There are many corrupt food polices all over the world. Just changing or adding a few would aid in reaching the goal of professionalism in farming. It is understandable that their are many people to feed but we owe to them to make sure the food they eat is safe.
China's Advancement
Depended on wet rice agriculture, labor intensive method of cultivation with uneven demands for labor input.
Used family as labor forces.
Big family + intensify effort = extra income for more land.
Past Methods
Present
Over the past 60 years, the scientific research on agricultural machinery increased greatly.
By the end of 2008, level of mechanization in the farming and harvest of major food crops reached 48%.
Innovations in Agricultural Science and Technology and Rural Development in China by Zhang Lubiao
(The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, CAAS)
China's Advancement
Wheat production realized of whole-process mechanization
Mechanization and harvest of rice transplantation and corn have advanced which lays foundation for release and transfer of rural force labor
Maintenance and improvement of agriculture productivity.
Rising of agricultural mechanization level lays a solid foundation for China.
Technology solved problem of inadequate gross-supply and unbalanced year round supply, led to income increase and prosperity of farmers.
India's Advancement
Agriculture was the main occupation of the vast majority of the population.
Plow was generally made of wood, and it was either light-weight or heavy-weight depending on soil.
Tillage, preparation of land for growing crops, was carried by harnessing a pair of oxen to the plow.
Past Methods
Present
Machinery very common nowadays.
Combine Harvester: machine that combines the tasks of harvesting, threshing, and cleaning grain crops
Although adopted from other country, they have the pivot irrigation system: records and transmits soil-moisture levels.
Hundreds of others used for traction, plowing, cultivating, planting, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.
India has the third largest scientific and technical manpower in the world.
Tradition of science and technology is over 5000 years old.
India's Advancement
U.S Advancement
Genetic Design
The benefit is to pinpoint and cater to specific biological and physiological needs. Which could be a more efficient way to improve overall health and diet nutrition.
Hyper-Precision Farming
Allows farmers to zero in on specific sections of land or crops, instead of large masses of land.
Targeting specifics through automated machinery allows farmers to be more efficient and yield a bigger harvest.
Vertical Farming
Opens up the possibility to grow in an urban, skyscraper setting.
Utilizing this method includes the ability to grow crops no matter what weather conditions and and reduce costs for transporting food to urban setting.
Agbots
Agricultural robots are not a feasible option now for everyone, but it is still present and and in development.
Drones would allow farms to become practically 100% automated.
Loss of jobs for farmers
More expensive
Loss of connection to crops
Past vs. Present
Sources
http://www.flashbacksummer.com/2015/10/american-farming-then-and-now.html
http://investeddevelopment.com/blog/2014/02/technological-advancements-in-agriculture-weekly-review-february-10-16/
http://knowledge.cta.int/Dossiers/S-T-Policy/Ethics/Feature-articles/Research-ethics-and-agricultural-innovations
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/helping_us_farmers_increase_production_and_protect_the_land/2549/
http://ers.usda.gov/data-products/ag-and-food-statistics-charting-the-essentials/ag-and-food-sectors-and-the-economy.aspx
According to Yale.edu's article on Helping U.S. Farmers Increase
Production and Protect the Land
The professionalism of farming aids the advancement
of agricultural by easing and encouraging productivity
levels. High levels of supply alievates need for food in
highly populated areas and reduces struggles of
overpopulation in areas as China, India, etc.
(Both MEDC & LEDC)
China, India, and the U.S
Population in China: 1.357 billion (2013)
Population in India: 1.252 billion (2013)
United States: 316.5 million (2013)

•Advancement in tech & medicine means more lives and
less deaths.
•With the rate of pop. we will reach the carrying capicity
of each country and Earth

How do we fix this?
Full transcript