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Copy of Copy of Copy of learning metaphor

learning metaphor
by

Fabio Ordoñez

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of learning metaphor

vocabulary grammar speaking listening reading writing IPA word stress meaning referent synonym example picture draw it take it from google images vocabulary
agenda consonant sounds vowel sounds diphthongs apostrophe critical thinking skills writing
process listening
routine conversation
analysis grammar box
analysis E N G L I S pronunciation h English sound
system Tip Boosting your IELTS and TOEFL score
through pronunciation Big and.... ... small too remember... No pain, no gain. p
r
o
n
u
n
c
i
a
t
i
o
n Looking forward to
reaching the summit? Pronunciation Pronunciation and IELTS Pronunciation and TOEFL Why Pronunciation matters The Role of Pronunciation in IELTS & TOEFL Pronunciation in IELTS and TOEFL Consider the importance of key pronunciation features Suggest a Pronunciation Routine Why? TOEFL IELTS We need to accomodate our speech to gain privileges. TOEFL
Speaking Criteria Delivery
of response Native Language Influence IELTS
Speaking Criteria IELTS
Pronunciation
Key features: (Giles, 1973) (humanaccents.com) Our job security and
academic advancement
is at stake because of mispronunciation (Reed, 2005) (Rogers, Thomson) (Speaking Rubrics
TOEFL, ETS) (Cambridge University Press) (ielts.org) (KAPLAN IELTS) A systematic work on pronunciation complements other language skills. (Red-Michaud, 2005) PRONUNCIATION LISTENING SPEAKING SOUND CONCEPTS RHYTHM GRAMMAR SOUNDS ENGLISH SOUNDS (Reed & Michaud, 2005) I.P.A MANNER AND VOICE PLACE OF ARTICULATION, 12 vowel, 8 diphthong 24 consonant sounds WORD STRESS LONG, CLEAR & STRONG 8 RULES IN SHORT WORDS 4 RULES IN LONGER WORDS -ED /t/ /d/ /Id/ REGULAR VERBS AND PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES ENDINGS -S /s/ /z/ /Iz/ PLURALS, 3rd PERSON SINGULAR, CONTRACTIONS AND POSSESSIVES RHYTHM CONTENT, GRAMMATICAL AND FOCUS WORDS STANDARD & EMPHATIC SOUND CONCEPTS OVERALL FEATURES LINKED, DELETED, CONTRACTED, REDUCED ALTERED SOUNDS & PAUSING Thanks! "If you keep on doing what you have always done, you will keep on getting what you have always got"
W> L. Bateman DEMONSTRATE-INDICATE
STRESS 2 SYLLABLES BEFORE VERBS ENDING IN -ATE BIOGRAPHY - ECOLOGY
STRESS SYLLABLE BEFORE SUFFIXES
-GRAPHY & -LOGY LOCATION-PRACTICAL
STRESS SYLLABLE BEFORE SUFFIXES BEGINNING WITH LETTER “i” PRESENT
2ND SYLLABLE VERBS
1ST SYLLABLE NOUNS 2-SYLLABLE VERBS USED AS NOUNS THIRTEEN
-TEEN NUMBERS MYSELF
SELF-SELVES REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS DOWNTOWN
2ND SYLLABLE COMPOUND ADVERBS ENGINEER-TECHNIQUE
STRESS THESE SYLLABLES SUFFIXES –EE, -EER,
-ESE, -ETTE & -IQUE PRINT OUT
2ND WORD OR PARTICLE PHRASAL VERBS REQUIRE-CONVINCE
2ND SYLLABLE 2 SYLLABLE VERBS
PREFIXES RE- CON- AD- DEADLINE
1ST SYLLABLE COMPOUND NOUNS FIVE DAYS
BOTH SYLLABLES PHRASES
VERBS THAT END
IN SOUNDS
/t/ OR /d/ /Id/ VERBS ENDING IN VOICELESS SOUNDS /t/
VERBS ENDING
IN VOICED SOUNDS /d/ “It smells like SPINACH. I HATE spinach. OH…it´s BROCcoli. I LOVE broccoli” FOCUS NEW INFORMATION FOCUS WORDS I have some GOOD news, and some BAD news FOCUS CONTRAST WORDS FOCUS WORDS I was so TIRED, that I slept LATE FOCUS THE LAST CONTENT WORD FOCUS WORDS JHON`s an OLD FRIEND GRAMMATICAL WORDS ARTICLES-CONJUNCTIONS-PREPOSITIONS-PRONOUNS-AUX. VERBS-VERB TO BE GRAMMATICAL WORDS be CAREful NOT to SIT on the WET PAINT CONTENT
WORDS NOUNS-MAIN VERBS-ADJECTIVES-ADVERBS-NEG-WH-INTERJECTIONS CONTENT
WORDS ABRUPT-ANGRY-IMPATIENT EQUAL STRESS

In English, some words and syllables are strong and others are weak
In Spanish every syllable has more or less equal emphasis /t/ : better-lettuce SOUNDS ARE ALTERED SOUND CONCEPTS /wana/ : want to /dya/ : do you SOUNDS ARE REDUCED SOUND CONCEPTS /th/ : them /h/ : he-his-her-him SOUNDS ARE DELETED SOUND CONCEPTS SOUND CONCEPTS /hi:z/ : he is /wIr/ : we are SOUNDS ARE CONTRACTED SOUND CONCEPTS
WHEN THE WORD ENDS IN A VOICELESS SOUND /s/
WHEN THE WORD ENDS IN A VOICED SOUND
WHEN THE WORD ENDS IN A SIBILANT OR BUZZING SOUND /Iz/ Use of Language
Development of Topic Delivery of Response Pronunciation
Fluency
Stress
Intonation
Pausing
Intelligibility Lexical Resource
Grammatical Range
Fluency & Coherence Pronunciation Intonation
stress
Connected speech Use of a wide range of pronunciation features
in a natural way is
essential Variety Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Mandible Step 3: The Lips Step 4: The Vocal Folds Step 5: The Veloparyngeal Port Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Mandible Step 3: The Lips Step 4: The Vocal Folds Step 5: The Veloparyngeal Port Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Jaw Step 3: The Lips Step 3: The Lips Step 4: The Vocal Folds Step 5: The Velopharyngeal Port Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Mandible Step 3: The Lips Step 4: The Vocal Folds Step 5: The Velopharyngeal Port Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Vocal Folds Step 4:The Velopharyngeal Port Step 5: Air Pressure Position 1 Position 2 Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Vocal Folds Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port Step 5: Air Pressure Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Vocal Folds Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port Step 5: Air Pressure Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Vocal Folds Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port Step 5: Air Pressure Position 1 Position 2 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Veloparyngeal Port Step 4: The Vocal Folds Step 5: Air Pressure Position 2 Position 1 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Vocal Folds Step 4: The Velpharyngeal Port Step 5: Air Pressure Position 2 Position 1 Step 1: The Tongue Step 2: The Lips Step 3: The Vocal Folds Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port I love hot smoked salmon with baked potatoes, He was amazed that he had pulled off what he had planned. topped with cracked pepper and mixed herbs, while wearing a black hat in my hut •She wanted to be invited so that she would be included, delighted and excited. /z/ THOUGHT GROUPS SOUND CONCEPTS Pausing after each thought makes understanding easier OVERALL FEATURES INTONATION FALL, RISE AND PARTIAL FALL
OF THE PITCH OF THE VOICE RISING INTONATION INTONATION To request clarification
At the end of yes/no ?
To check knowledge
Uncertainty Completion of an idea
Certainty
At the end of WH ? First option(s) in a list:
Rising Intonation
Second option in a list:
Falling Intonation INTONATION FALLING INTONATION PARTIAL FALL OR RISING More to come
Unfinished ideas INTONATION RISING & FALLING
INTONATION INTONATION & all vowel sounds & vowel sounds We use -s endings on the following cases:
Plurals: My aunts work.
Verbs (present tense singular): My aunt works.
Possessives: What was Mike's answer?
Contractions: The lamp's on. We use -s endings on the following cases:
Plurals: My brothers work.
Verbs (present tense singular): My aunt plays.
Possessives: What was Ann's answer?
Contractions: The battery's on. /z/ /s/ We use -s endings on the following cases:
Plurals: My nieces work.
Verbs (present tense singular): My aunt judges.
Possessives: What was George's answer?
Contractions: The watches are on. /Iz/ STRESS IMPORTANT CONTENT WORDS THIS MUST BE DONE BY NOON REDUCE OR WEAKEN FUNCTION WORDS intonation when delvering answers Motivation,
exposure & phonetic instruction guarantee intelligibility (Celce-Murcia, 1996) Privileges Why? Integrated Skills High scoring responses should contain relevant intonation, stress and rhythm patterns to convey intellible meaning. TOEFL
Key Features
Scoring Rubrics ETS Propell Unintelligible accent features interfere with communication Pronunciation is an integrated system, not a process of speculation
& Empirical instruction
is valid but not
accurate. RELEVANCE CONSONANT & VOWEL SOUNDS
ACCURACY RESULTS IN HIGHER SCORES -ED AND -S ENDINGS ARE ESSENTIAL TO CONVEY ESSENTIAL GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION RHYTHM, STRESS & INTONATION ALL CARRY MEANING. ERRORS SERIOUSLY IMPAIR COMMUNICATION:
WHAT IS MEANT WORKING ON SOUND CONCEPTS IMPROVES LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS SAID
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