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TOK: Do Violent Video Games Create Violent People? By: Christine Okaro
Transcript of TOK: Do Violent Video Games Create Violent People? By: Christine Okaro
December 14, 2012 (9:35-9:49 AM)
avid player of Call of Duty Do violent video games play a role in violent behavior ? Christine Okaro How do we know if violent video games impact their players? RLS: The Sandy Hook Killer The Case of Adam Lanza December 14, 2012
forced way into Sandy Hook Elementary School
shot 26 people in the school
weapons: semiautomatic .223 caliber rifle
Call of Duty: Black Ops 2
Starcraft ETHICS Area of Knowledge Knowledge Issue: What is considered as violent activity? Definition: exertion of physical force as to injure or abuse Merriam-Webster Dictionary Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) Four Main Levels of Violence 1. Cartoon violence (E)
2. Punching violence (T)
3. Shooting violence (M)
4. War Violence (M to AO) Point of View: Interests Groups NRA:
"a callous, corrupt and corrupting shadow industry"
"sells, sows violence"
"vicious, violent video games" KI: Should violent video games be regulated? Senators Hillary Clinton, Joe Lieberman, Evan Bayh
Family Entertainment Act
federal mandate enforcement of ESRB ratings
goal: "protect children from inappropriate violence" Senator Leland Yee (California)
proposed bill to regulate the voluntary age-advisory system
case taken to Supreme Court Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association
California law intended to ban the sale of certain video games with graphic/violent content to minors Supreme Court Decision June 27, 2011 protected free speech under First Amendment
definition of violence to "vague"
no known correlation
video games given same rights as other media
cannot create restricted speech solely for video games KI: Who is responsible for monitoring "violent" games? Parents/Consumers Government Video Game Developers Parents:
should know their child's level of maturity
monitor "violence level" of games
carefully research video games before purchase
tolerance to violence
How much is too much?
Can I handle this (psychologically)? Regulate the sale of violent video games
protect minors from possible violent behavior
increase in violent behavior may be influenced by violent video games
ESRB ratings should lawfully enforced
law to possibly ban violent media Decrease amount of violent activity in games
Remove unrated content Problems of Knowledge Problem of Knowlege Problem of Knowledge Free speech infringement, unconstitutional Does not have the power to
regulate free speech Can one truly access their own maturity?
Able to assess the maturity level of child? Are all the same? Call of Duty HUMAN SCIENCE Area of Knowledge Knowledge Issue: Does one's ability to reason
correlate to one's age? Adam Lanza
20 years old
finished high school at 16 years old
bright, promising among peers
played M (17+) rated games Knowledge Issue: Do video games cause aggression and/or violence? Government In 2003, Washington State proposed the ban of video games containing:
"aggressive conflict in which the player kills, injures, or otherwise causes physical harm to a human form..." = Sandy Hook weapon Call of Duty weapon Psychological Studies ESRB rating suggestions based on age
States banning violent games for children
played either a violent or nonviolent video game
read interpersonal conflicts
"People who played a violent video game described the main character behaving more aggressively, thinking more aggressive thoughts, and feeling more angry than did people who played a nonviolent video game." "Research conducted over several decades has shown that violent media increase aggression." Brad Bushman & Craig Anderson Lawrence Kutner & Cheryl Olson Harvard University Researchers tested 1,200 middle school students
played 15 hours of Grand Theft Auto (violent) a week or Sims (non-violent)
Boys: 51% of male children who played violent games were in fights in the past year compared to 28% who played regular video games.
Girls: 40% of the violent game players were in fights compared to 14% of the non-violent players.
Other psychological factors influence violence 'Children who played violent video games (M or above)
were just relieving stress.' Brad Bushman Ohio State University Professor 70 french university students were split into two groups
35 played violent games (Call of Duty 4)
35 played non-violent games (Dirt 2)
Players asked to finish stories:
violent gamers: more aggressive story lines 'Violent video games have a direct causal effect on aggression.' “But certain personalities are
unable to so easily differentiate
between fantasy and the real world.
They might not fully understand that
the people they harm have real lives
and real families. As kids grow,
most distinguish fantasy
from reality.” - Dr. Davies Additional Knowledge Issue Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist AKI: Should the emotional and psychological capability of a consumer be assessed before playing violent video games? conducted several other studies involving over 130,000 participants "...playing violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, and physiological arousal.” Christopher J. Ferguson, Adolfo Garza, Jessica Jerabeck, Raul Ramos & Mariza Galindo Researchers, Journal of Youth and Adolescence "There is no good evidence that video games or other media contributes, even in a small way, to mass homicides or any other violence among youth." significant aggression is not caused
violent video games do not “desensitize” users
violence on screen had no influence on viewer empathy for victims of real violence
video games soared in popularity, youth violence has declined to 40-year lows ART Area of Knowledge Language, Reason, Perception Perception, Emotion Knowledge Issue: Are video games considered an art? Art is the expression of creativity
video game creation is more of a service than an artistic expression
highest ideal is 100% player satisfaction
does not elicit credible emotion Hideo Kojima (game designer) & Roger Ebert (film critic) Elbert:
games can never be art, due to their rules and goal-based interactivity The art community generally does not categorize video games as art. The Museum of Modern Art in New York “They (video games) sure are (an art), but they are also design...the games are selected as outstanding examples of interaction design...one of the most important and oft-discussed expressions of contemporary design creativity.” Exhibits video games that have influenced design: Super Mario Bros. Tetris Video games are given the same protective rights as other
forms of media by the United States Supreme Court. Conclusion No study has successfully linked video games to acts of violence.
Video games are not lawfully bound to limit the amount of violence shown.
The affect of violence in video games is highly subjective.
The categorization of video games as an art is subjective, yet the rights of video games directly correlate with the rights of other forms of art. Works Cited http://elitedaily.com/elite/2012/gun-adam-lanza/
http://www.wired.com/gamelife/2012/11/moma-videogames/ Emotion, Perception, Reason Legislative Judicial