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Types of Societies and Subsistence Strategies
Transcript of Types of Societies and Subsistence Strategies
Sociologists classify societies based on the
The way a society uses technology to meet the needs of its members.
Food production is carried out through the use of human and animal labor.
Types of Preindustrial Societies
Food production occurs by gathering wild plants and animals.
Rely on domesticated animals for food.
Rely on simple human tools to grow food.
Animal power is used to cultivate large crops of food.
Hunting & Gathering
Food surpluses (food workers can grow more food than they need)
1. Allows for “division of labor” (not everyone has to farm).
4.Larger groups of people can live in one spot and build permanent houses.
2. Power in society becomes based in controlling the extra food.
3. Surpluses mean world’s first rich & poor.
More efficient subsistence strategies create...
Picture by Robert ParkeHarrison
Use fuel sources to produce food AND goods.
Less energy needed to meet food needs
Food- more work in production of goods instead of food.
Goods- avg. wealth increases but also means rich have WAY more.
Jobs are found close to factories.
Urbanization- population moves to cities.
Where People Live
Lots of different jobs allow people to compete for their social status.
Achieved statuses matter more than ascribed. (Earned job and income vs. inherited land or political position)
Family has less influence (replaced by jobs, schools).
Science (understand to better control)
Religion (don't need to understand)
Pre-Industrial- Gemeinschaft: people form close personal relationships with one another.
Industrial- Gesellschaft: relationships are distant and temporary. Individuals are more important than groups.
Pre Industrial-> Mechanical solidarity- people become united together as they perform the same tasks.
Industrial-> Organic Solidarity- People depend on the tasks other strangers do to survive.
According to Tonnies
According to Durkheim
a condition where social norms and morals are unclear because lack of social connections.
Focus is on providing information and services (esp. dealing with technology).
Post-industrial societies are wealthy and "highly developed"
Material wealth is so common that individuals can on more than basic needs (food, shelter).
Quality of life and individual fulfillment become more important than “paying the bills.”
Individuals don't want to be controlled by any institution (government, job, etc.).