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Cell Division

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Daniel Dychkowski

on 8 December 2015

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Transcript of Cell Division

Cell Division
The Cell Cycle
Binary Fission
Mitosis
Meiosis
G0 Phase
1. Cell Growth Checkpoint
2. DNA Synthesis Checkpoint
3. Mitosis Checkpoint
Resting
Growth Phase 1 (G1)
: during this phase, the cell grows rapidly, while performing routine metabolic processes. It also makes proteins needed for DNA replication and copies some of its organelles in preparation for cell division. A cell typically spends most of its life in this phase.
Synthesis Phase (S)
: during this phase, the cell’s DNA is copied in the process of DNA replication.
Growth Phase 2 (G2)
: during this phase, the cell makes final preparations to divide. For example, it makes additional proteins and organelles.
Checks if the cell is big enough and contains the proper proteins for the S phase.
checks whether or not DNA has been replicated correctly.
Checks whether mitosis is complete, if so cytokinesis occurs.
The cell isn't dividing and isn't preparing to divide.
Why is it necessary?
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Cancer
Neoplasm
can be harmless or harmful
benign
malignant
How does a cell become cancerous?
What are the characteristics of a malignant neoplasm?
-super growth
-invasive
-more frequent mutations
can metastasize

Step 1
:
DNA Replication.
Just before the cell divides, its DNA is copied in a process called DNA replication. This results in two identical chromosomes instead of just one.
Step 2
:
Chromosome Segregation.
The two chromosomes segregate, or separate, and move to opposite ends (known as "poles") of the cell.
Step 3:
Cytokinesis
.
A new plasma membrane starts growing into the center of the cell, and the cytoplasm splits apart, forming two daughter cells.
reproduction, growth, and repair.
A replicated
chromosome
Centromere
Sister chromatids
Chromatin
Gene: instructions for making a protein
Chromosomes become visible
Nuclear membrane disappears
Centrioles move to opposite poles
Spindles start to form
Over 90% of the cells life (G1,G2, S)
DNA is replicated
Spindle fibers attach to the centromere of each pair of sister chromatids
The sister chromatids line up at the equator
Spindle fibers ensure that sister chromatids will separate and go to different daughter cells when the cell divides.
Sister chromatids separate and the centromeres divide.
The sister chromatids are pulled apart by the shortening of the spindle fibers.
One sister chromatid moves to one pole of the cell, and the other sister chromatid moves to the opposite pole. At the end of anaphase, each pole of the cell has a complete set of chromosomes.
The spindle breaks down and new nuclear membranes form.
The chromosomes begin to uncoil and form chromatin allowing the genetic material to direct the metabolic activities of the new cells.
The cytoplasm splits in two and the cell divides.
Cytokinesis occurs somewhat differently in plant and animal cells.
In animal cells, the plasma membrane of the parent cell pinches inward along the cell’s equator.
In plant cells, a cell plate forms along the equator of the parent cell. Then, a new plasma membrane and cell wall form along each side of the cell plate.
Meiosis v. Mitosis
Lab Activity
Crossing Over - Chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange segments
Lack
contact inhibition
Gametogenesis
Spermatogenesis
Ask me if I like coffee.
I

P
refer
M
ilk
A
nd
T
ea
Karyotype:

a photographic inventory of an individuals chromosomes
Trisomy 21
Nondisjunctions of the sex chromosomes:
Klinefelter syndrome XXY, XXYY, XXXY, XXXXY
XYY and XXX
Turner Syndrome XO
Nondisjunctions!
Oogenesis
GAME FACE
#1) a confident swagger you bring out when you are about to get ready to tackle something difficult, or when you are about to take on a challenge. Or when you are getting ready to get down to hard business.

#2) When you are ready and pumped up to party really hard.
#1)
Person1: "Tomorrow's your job interview, right? Are you ready?"
Person2: "Yea son, I'm bringin' out my GAME FACE."
Get your game face on!
2n = 46
2n = 46
Spermato
Oo
GONIUM
Spermato
PRIMARY
CYTES
Oo
SECONDARY
Spermato
Oo
CYTES
n=23
4 Spermatids
Ovum + 3 polar bodies
n=23
Trisomy 13: Patau Syndrome
Trisomy 18: Edwards Syndrome
The cell cycle is regulated by proteins called
cyclins
.
Do Now: Compare and contrast
Internal Regulators:
these are the security guards at the cell cycle checkpoints.
External Regulators:
include growth factors which are important for healing and embryonic development (stimulate growth).
Are there external regulators that inhibit growth?
p53
tumor suppressor gene
Treatments?
Chemotherapy
Radiation
Immunotherapy
Gene therapy
and more...

Full transcript