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Transcript of Severe Weather
self-sustaining thunderstorm characterized by intense, rotating updrafts. Step Leader Return Stroke Channel Downburts Violent downdrafts that are concentrated in a local area Macroburts Microburts 5km
200km/h wind speed
10mins 1 billion in damage in U.S. each year A change in wind direction & speed creates a horizontal rotation in the lower atmosphere Strong updrafts tilt the rotating air from a horizontal to a vertical position A tornado forms within the rotating winds 80% of all tornadoes
Path: 3 miles
Wind Speed: 60 to 115mph
Duration: 1-10mins + 19% of all tornadoes
Path: 15 miles +
Wind Speed: 110 to 205mph
Duration: 20 mins + 1% of all tornadoes
Path: 50 miles +
Wind Speed: 200mph +
Duration: 1hr Potentially devastating natural occurrence in which water spills over the side of a stream's banks onto adjacent land areas Large, low-pressure, rotating storm that gets its energy from the evaporation of warm ocean water and the release of latent heat All tropical oceans except in the relatively cool waters of the South Pacific & South Atlantic Oceans Stages of Tropical Cyclones Air-Mass Thunderstorms 2 types
Orographic lifting Orographic Lifting Frontal Thunderstorms Cold Front Warm Front Occluded Front Cold Front Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale Classifying Hurricanes Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Wind Speed
Air pressure in the center
Potential for property damage 74mph + 155mph + Florence, 1988(LA)
Charley, 1988 (NC) Frances, 2004 (FL)
Floyd, 1999 (NE U.S.) Fran, 1996 (SC)
Ivan, 2004 (AL) Charley, 2004 (FL)
Hugo, 1989 (SC) Camille, 1969 (LA/MS)
Andrew, 1992 (S. Fl) Eye- Calm center of a tropical cyclone that develops when the winds around its center reach at least 120km/h Eye Wall- Band where the strongest winds in a hurricane are usually concentrated, surrounding the eye. Drought Lightning Facts Heats the air to 30,000°C (five times hotter than the surface of the sun)
Thunder is produced by rapidly expanding & contracting air
75,000 forest fires a yr in U.S.
300 injuries & 93 deaths a yr in U.S. Caused by friction within the cloud Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling the earth near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together. Latent Heat The latent heat absorbed by air when water vapor condenses is the source of power for thunderstorms and hurricanes. Hail, thunderstorms, tornadoes Wind Shear F0-F1 F2-F3 F4-F5 Categorized by: Doppler Radar Storm Surge South
Pacific Two common types:
frontal thunderstorms Unequal heating Extended period of low rainfall, usually caused by shifts in global wind patterns, allowing high pressure systems to remain for weeks of months over continental areas. 1930's Dust Bowl Extended period of higher-than-normal temperatures caused by large, high pressure systems that warm by compression and block cooler air masses. Extended period of lower-than-normal temperatures caused by large, high –pressure systems of continental polar or arctic origin.