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Pablo Neruda

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on 15 June 2014

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Transcript of Pablo Neruda

How Pablo Neruda's Political Involvement Affected his Poetry

Residence on Earth
marked Neruda's emergence as an important international poet.
Serving as a consul in Spain when the 2nd volume of the collection was published in 1935.
Poets like Rafael Alberti and Miguel Hernandez politicized Neruda.
Communism changed Neruda's approach to poetry.
Influenced by both the Spanish Civil War and the works of Spanish Baroque poet Francisco Gomez de Quevedo y Villegas.
Worked on
Canto General
while serving in the Chilean senate as a representative of the Communist Party, reflecting some of the party's basic ideological beliefs.
The Spanish Civil War and it's Impact on Pablo Neruda
The Spanish Civil War was the struggle between the Republican and National Forces in Spain between 1936 and 1939.
It engaged the imagination and the conscience of many writers and intellectuals from around the world including Pablo Neruda.
Neruda first started to become politicized after he was appointed as consul to Madrid, Spain, in 1934, replacing fellow poet and Chilean Gabriela Mistral in the role.
Between 1927 and 1935, the government put Neruda in charge of a number of honorary consulship.
Why did Pablo Neruda become Involved in Politics?
Talent in poetry from a
young age but seeked inspiration
from everyday life
Not much financial stability there
Became
honorary consul in the colonial Far East-late 1920s
Faced poverty
1939-Consul General in Mexico City
Neruda's move to Spain and the Spanish Civil War
Inspired Neruda
Poetry and Politics
Pablo Neruda
1945-Elected as a Communist party senator
Gabriel González Videla asked Neruda to be his presidential campaign manager
Chilean government moving to the right
Neruda seen as a prominent left-wing literary figure
Concerned about society around him
Stood up for what he believed in
Gave a voice to others
• His poetic production during that difficult period included, among other works, the collection of esoteric surrealistic poems,
Residencia en la tierra
(Residence of Earth) (1933), which marked his literary breakthrough.

Residencia en la tierra
also marked Neruda’s emergence as an important international poet.
• When the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, Neruda was among the first to espouse the Republican cause with the poem
España en el corazon
—a gesture that cost him his consular post.
• The Spanish Civil War and the murder of García Lorca, affected him very strongly and made him join the Republican movement, first in Spain, and later in France.
• Lorca was one of Spain's most recognised poets and a member of Neruda's inner social circle before being killed by Nationalist forces.
• France is where he started working on his collection of poems España en el Corazón (1937).

• The same year he returned to his native country.
• His poetry during this period was characterized by an orientation towards political and social matters.
• Communism rescued Neruda from the despair he expressed in the first parts of
Residencia en la tierra
, and led to a change in his approach to poetry.

• This significant shift in Neruda’s poetry is recognizable in
Tercera residencia
(Third Residence), the third and final part of the “
Residencia
” series.
• “
Las Furias y las penas
(The Furies and Penatlies),” the longest poem of
Tercera residencia
, embodies the influence of the Spanish Civil War on Neruda.
• The poem explores the agony of lost love and its accompanying guilt and suffering.
• This is invented in the imagery of savage eroticism, alienation, and loss of self-identity.
• While some critics have felt that Neruda’s devotion to Communist dogma was at times extreme, others recognize the important impact his politics had on his poetry.
• Neruda expanded on his political views in Canto general.

• From this time onwards, Neruda openly and energetically supported the Republicans, marking a shift in his ideology that was reflected in his poetry as well.
Born:
Date:
July 12, 1904

Birth Name:
Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto

Place of Birth:
Parral, Chile


Neruda's mother, who was a teacher, died shortly after his birth.
Neruda moved to Temco with his father, who was a railway employee, and spent most of his childhood there.
Neruda got to know
Gabriela mistral
, who was the head of a girls’ secondary school.
At
age 13
, Neruda began to contribute some articles to the daily “
La Manana
”.

His first publication and his first poem was "
Entusiasmo y Perseverancia
".
Neruda was a contributor to a literary journal, “
Selva Austral
” under the pen name Pablo Neruda, adopted in memory of the Czechoslovak poet
Jan Neruda.
1920
First published book:
Crepusculario
1927 - 1935
The government put Neruda in charge of a number of honorary consulships.

Spanish Civil War
murder of Garcia lorca
Neruda joined the republican movement

1939
Neruda was appointed consul for the Spanish emigration.


1943
Neruda returned to Chile.
1945
Neruda was elected senator of republic.
1947
Due to protest against the president's repressive policy against striking miners, Neruda had to live underground in his own country for 2 years until he managed to leave in 1949.
1952
After living in different European countries, Neruda returned home.
Neruda's involvement in politics throughout his life
Full transcript