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Reflected Ceiling Plans
Transcript of Reflected Ceiling Plans
The process of illuminating commercial interior spaces from the original design intent to the actual installation of the lighting system involves a number of people as well as different types of drawings. During the design development phase of a project, the interior designer sets the design intent of the project and focuses on aesthetics, finishes, and quality of light, as well as the shapes and materials of the ceiling plane
Note that the electrical lighting plan and the reflected ceiling plan appear similar, but differ in some important ways. The reflected ceiling plan is often drawn first by the interior designer, showing the various ceiling materials and other particulars. The light fixture types and locations are planned on this drawing to coordinate with other items such as mechanical ceiling diffusers, dropped soffits, a suspended ceiling, sprinklers, and other items that appear on the ceiling plane, as illustrated in Figure 16-3. Since the lighting fixtures, referred to as luminaries, are shown on the reflected ceiling plan in a schematic form, a legend is used to cross-reference this drawing to the lighting plan for the exact specifications of the luminaries’ wattages, sizes, wall switches, and the various circuits and wiring for these fixtures, as shown in Figure 16-4.
Attached Ceiling Systems
Attached ceilings are generally made of gypsum wallboard or wood and can be attached to the bottom of floor or ceiling joists using screws or nails. For most commercial spaces, gypsum wallboard for ceilings must be at least ⅝ inch (16 mm) thick, which is used for typical framing of 24 inches (600 mm) on center. The gypsum wallboard is finished using tape and joint compound to produce a continuous plane. In commercial construction, screws are the preferred fastener for both ceiling and partitions because they hold stronger than nails. Depending on the occupancy classification, fire ratings of ceiling assemblies may vary from none to 4 hours. In attached ceiling systems, surface-mounted lighting fixtures need UL-approved mechanical hangers to bear the fixtures’ weight. If recessed fixtures are used, their hangers must have the same fire rating of the ceiling system, as they are attached to the building's structure.
Reflected Ceiling Plans
The interior designer is responsible for developing the lighting design that is drawn and then documented as a reflected ceiling plan. The reflected ceiling plan is part of the overall architectural drawings and shows the construction of the ceiling, the location of all the lighting, as well as the location of sprinklers, smoke detectors, and any other objects in or on the ceiling, such as the mechanical (HVAC) air diffusers and grilles. In residential projects and some small commercial projects, the switching and electrical outlets may also be indicated, as illustrated in Figure 16-1.
In order to accomplish a well-designed lighting environment several factors must first be considered
1. Establish the design intent
2. Identify visual tasks and determine the appropriate illumination levels
3. Determine amount of daylight available and sustainability issues
4. Consider energy efficiency and conservation
5. Determine initial and operating costs/budgets
The interior designer is generally responsible for setting the overall design concepts, as well as preparing the reflected ceiling plan (RCP) and schedule that indicates any changes in ceiling height, fixture locations and selections, as shown in Figure 16-6. Lighting is one of the major uses of electrical energy in most commercial buildings and is part of the electrical system of a building. These electrical systems include the lighting, electrical outlets, telephone lines and other communication systems, as well as computer power and networks. The lighting design for a large building must be coordinated with the electrical and mechanical engineers, as well as the architect. The reflected ceiling plan will include everything that interfaces with the ceiling, such as the location of all the lighting, sprinklers, smoke detectors, and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) air diffusers and grilles, as shown in Figure 16-7.
Suspended ceilings are hung from a building's structure to provide space above the ceiling, called the plenum, for concealment of mechanical and electrical components, and other services. The most common type of suspended ceilings in commercial interior construction is the acoustical panels. This type of system consists of thin panels of wood, mineral or glass fiber, or fabric-covered acoustical batts set in a grid of metal framing that is suspended by wires from the structure above (Figure 16-9). The fiber panels are fissured in various ways to absorb sound to reduce noise levels with a space while providing easy plenum access. Specific sound transmission data for various panel types can be seen in manufacturers’ specifications. Suspended acoustical ceilings are used in commercial interiors for low cost, fast installation, sound control,
Suspended Ceiling Systems