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Solar Scholars 2011

April 15th Gallery Theater

Zak Elmanakhly

on 21 November 2011

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Transcript of Solar Scholars 2011

Solar Scholars
Solar Energy Presentation Zak Elmanakhly
Professor Tom diStephano
Professor Steve Buonopane
Justin Charles of Lenape Solar Solar Power Tower Parabolic Trough SolarDish Solar Thermal
active vs. passive The Solar Scholars Program at Bucknell Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector Fossil fuel reserves are ultimately finite Two-thirds of the world' s proven oil reserves are located in the Middle-East and North Africa
(which can lead to political and economic instability)

Egypt and world politics Environmental Impacts extraction &
diminishing returns Solutions Hydro-electric Solar in Pennsylvania PA Alternative Energy Investment Fund PA Sunshine Program 8.58 10.81 11.69 2008 2009 2010 Solar Modules domestic hot water
(solar thermal) Photovoltaic (PV) Hierarchy cell < module < panel < array How Solar Works Available Cell Technologies Single-crystal or Mono-crystalline Silicon

Polycrystalline or Multi-crystalline Silicon

Ex. Amorphous silicon or Cadmium Telluride Mono-crystalline Silicon Modules One sheet of silicon
More efficient (11% - 14%) - most expensive - used in satellites
Circular (square-round) cell Poly-crystalline Silicon Modules Shards of silicon
Less efficient (10% - 12%) - cheaper - more common
Square shape cells Thin-Film Most inexpensive to produce
Can be flexible or rigid
Efficiency 6% – 8 %
Less susceptible to shading problems
Better performance in low light conditions that with crystalline modules What factors effect solar energy production? Depends on orientation of internal module circuitry relative to the orientation of the shading.
Only becomes an issue if an entire cell/module is shaded
Bird poop usually not a problem Shading Basic Mounting Options Fixed -roof, ground, pole
Integrated - solar shingles
Tracking - pole (active & passive) Passive vs Active Tracking Considerations Can increase system performance by:
15% in winter months
30% in summer months Adds additional costs to the array Passive:
Have no motors, controls, or gears
Use the changing weight of a gaseous refrigerant within a sealed frame member to track the sun Solar Panel Maintenance Concentrated Solar Power Cost of electricity for domestic use
(Cents per kilowatthour) How do we reduce the bill? Silicon Active:
Linear actuator motors controlled by sensors follow the sun throughout the day

Uses electricity to produce electricity PA coal and natural gas water pollution
frac water
acid mine drainage Pennsylvania Sunshine Program Solar Renewable Energy Certificates PP does not degrade as quickly as
- metals in thin-film
- basically made out of sand government incentives tax credit grants New Jersey - $650 / MWh
Pennsylvania - $220 / MWh
Massachusetts - $550 / MWh

Comparing SRECs Solar Geo-thermal Wind Thin film Do it yourself mine disasters the fourth boom boom and bust flammable water! 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1st installation workshop array Second installation Real time monitoring developed Workshop Recruitment combustion global warming Image Source Page: http://beallsustainability.com/anger-at-gulf-oil-spill-can-fuel-sustainable-actions/ fresh interns with fresh ideas
data from current arrays needs to be utilized
keeping up with technology and current events
keeping up with state incentives and programs
further expansion of program
become and expert in solar energy how faculty can be involved with the solar array/data,
including class tours,
in-class presentations by our solar scholars students,
using the data in class,
independant studies. "Bigger Picture" for solar energy,
how you got involved with solar,
and opportunities after Bucknell (employment). overview of wind project at Bucknell,
where it stands,
where it COULD go, and
opportunities for students and fac to get involved 1/4th Sustainable Living Intro Class Presentation Technology Engineering Presentation Energy Saving Ideas Home Installation Applications Photovoltaics
Solar Thermal
Concentrated Solar Power Advances in efficiency of panels:
130kw panel vs 100kw panel
niche applications
military neat looking
include research opportunities
efficiency of tracking vs. active
possibly the construction and wiring slides parabolic trough
concentrating linear fresnal reflectors
stirling solar dish
reflective tower battery recharge
battery has a 3 hour life when fully charged
can be powered continuously @ 80 watts by the portable solar cells
$1,500 - $10,000 Laptop Magnifying Solar Power Focus sunlight like a child would with a magnifying glass when frying an ant
Less materials need to be used (the size of an ant) to get the same energy output cadmium indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thinfilm may soon reach efficiencies that compete with silicon based cells

cadmium is considered a hazardous material, which creates extra complications in the disposal of cad-tel panels Storage http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/4287132 Reflective Tower Solar Dish Parabolic Trough Concentrating Linear Fresnal Reflectors Concentrate light at a focul point where an absorber converts heat into electricity
Investment subsidies: grants and tax breaks

Renewable Energy Certificates ("RECs")
Measured in Volts
Electrical potential
“Height” of water on one side of a dam compared to the other side
Measured in Amps
Rate of electron flow
“Speed” at which water flows through the dam
Measure of Power
Rate of electrical energy
Not to be confused with Current! Terminology Resistance
The opposition of a material to the flow of an electrical current
Depends on Material
Cross sectional area
Temperature Types of Current DC = Direct Current
PV panels produce DC
Batteries store DC
AC = Alternating Current
Utility power
Most consumer appliances use AC
Electric charge changes direction Watt-hour (Wh) is a measure of energy
Unit quantity of electrical energy (consumption and production)
Watts x hours = Watt-hours
1 Kilowatt-hour (kWh) = 1000 Wh Solar Domestic Hot Water Practical Criteria
Mounting Characteristics
Cost (per watt) Selecting the Correct Module Temperature Most efficient at 25º C (77 ºF)
Module Vmp decreases by approximately 0.5% per degree C increase
As the PV cell temperature increases above 25º C, the module Vmp decreases by approximately 0.5% per degree C Temperature Solar Energy in the US and PA Pennsylvania is a leader in renewable energy,
local & state grant and loan programs
tax credits & deductions US was 8% in 2006 Conservation Technology Efficiency Voltage: E or V (Volts)

Current: I or A (Amps)

Resistance: R or Ω (Ohms)

Watt: W (Watt) Solar Thermal Stirling Engine Questions? Link to real time data collection

Link to Solar Scholars website at Bucknell
http://www.bucknell.edu/x20303.xml What is Energy? Heat circulating fluid
Flat plate cheaper
Tubes more efficient--Residual heat Solar Thermal Hot Water Heaters
Flat Panel vs Evacuated Tubes Solar thermal installation in the Mods Practical Efficiency Recommendations For every $1 spent on energy efficiency, you save $3-$5 on system cost

Start with your load use:

Do it efficiently
Do with less
Do without Improving Energy Efficiency in the Home Space Heating:
Passive solar design
Wood stoves
Radiant Floor/ baseboard
Efficient windows Domestic hot water heating:
Solar thermal
Propane/natural gas
On demand hot water Washing machines
Energy efficient front loading machine Cooling:
Ceiling fans
Window shades
Reflective attic cover
Attic fan Phantom Loads Lighting Efficiency Factors effecting light efficiency
Type of light
Positioning of lights
Fixture design
Color of ceilings and walls Incandescent Lamps Advantages
Most common
Least expensive
Pleasing light Disadvantages
Low efficiency
Short life ~ 750 hours Fluorescent Bulbs Less wattage, same amount of lumens
Longer life (~10,000 hours)
May have difficulty starting in cold environments
Not good for lights that are repeatedly turned on and off
Contain a small amount of mercury Light Emitting Diode (LED) Lights Advantages
Extremely efficient
Long life (100,000 hours)
No radio frequency interference Disadvantages
(prices are decreasing steadily) Do it yourself PV Anthropocentrism vs. Deep Ecology Garrett Hardin - The Tragedy of the Commons Marshall Sahlins - The Original Affluent Society Add use of "heat pumps" to regulate home temperature Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) more information on storage methods!!!! Form a foundation for
a basic understanding
of solar energy Photovoltaic Common Applications Evacuated
Tubes Hot
Plate Solar Power Tower Solar
Parabolic Trough Compact Linear
Fresnel Reflector Array of flat mirros
Focus sunlight
Molten salt--higher heat capacity
Produce electricity with no sun
1 installation in US - 5mw
Parabolic mirror
Tube at focal point
Heat transfer fluid
Steam turbine
Polished metal - cheaper Large parabolic dish
Many small flat mirrors
Focus sunlight to one point
Similar to parabolic trough
Multiple flat mirrors
Cheaper than curved mirrors

Panels in 2 parts - positive and negative
Electric field created
Photons cause electrons to jump P to N
Electrons want to go back to P
We provide external route = current
Little maintenance is required
Check efficiency at inverter
Rain usually enough to clean
Cooling - hosing Solar rebates

Residential - $0.75/W DC
Commercial - $0.50-.75/W DC (depends on size)
Solar Thermal - 35% of total cost
Pennsylvania Sunshine Program Tradable commodities
1000 kWh (1 MWh)
Utility companies must purchase certain amount
Price different in each state Real time data collection upgraded - more user friendly
Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly time scale
The BUEC array provided 1/7 of the power the BUEC consumed in 2010.
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