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Transcript of Crusades
A black mark on our Catholic faith???
What are the Crusades ?
- religious conflict in the middle ages beginning in 1095ish A.D. over a variety of issues:
- mistreatment of non-Muslims
-desire to regain control over the religious sites within the Holy Land
-lasted over 200 years
-"crusade" being derived from the French term for taking up the cross
-Middle Ages (up till 1600's) you would not find a Christian in Europe who did not believe that the Crusades were not an act of highest good
Myth or Fact: The Crusades were wars of unprovoked aggression against a peaceful Muslim world
-end of the 11th century forces of Islam captured 2/3 of the Christian world
- first Crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095 in response to the urgent plea for help from the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople
- errand of mercy liberating Christians of the East from those who conquered them
-defensive war in response to Muslim aggression
In 2001, former president Bill Clinton delivered a speech at Georgetown University in which he discussed the West's response to the recent terrorist attacks of September 11. The speech contained a short but significant reference to the crusades. Mr. Clinton observed that "when the Christian soldiers took Jerusalem [in 1099], they . . . proceeded to kill every woman and child who was Muslim on the Temple Mount." He cited the "contemporaneous descriptions of the event" as describing "soldiers walking on the Temple Mount . . . with blood running up to their knees." This story, Mr. Clinton said emphatically, was "still being told today in the Middle East and we are still paying for it."
explore the Crusades by
-Muslims even respected the ideals of the Crusades and piety of the men who fought them
based on the article Crusade Myths
written by Dr. Thomas F. Madden
associate professor and chair of the Department of History at St. Louis University
Kingdom of Heaven: Attack on Jerusalem
Myth or Fact: They wore crosses but really interested in capturing booty and land
was an expensive operation
Lords were forced to sell off or mortgage their land
crusaders were proud to do their duty & return home
booty was scarce
virtually none of them recovered their expenses
Myth/Fact: President Clinton was wrong
ppl in Jerusalem were killed after the Crusaders captured the city
moral standard= a city that resisted capture and was taken by force belonged to to the victorious
the defenders of Jerusalem resisted up to the end
many were killed, ransomed and allowed to go free= brutal by modern standards
medieval knight would point out that more innocent men, women and children are killed in bombing than could possibly be put to the sword
** Muslims cities that surrendered retained their property, and allowed to worship freely
Myth/Fact: One of the aims of the Crusades was to defend Jerusalem
defend the Holy Places in Palestine esp Jerusalem
safe environment for Christian pilgrims
No economic benefit as the Crusades were a serious drain on European resources
Fact/Myth: Crusades were wars against the Jews
1st Crusade = riffraff not assoc. with the many army
robbed and killed Jews
Pope Urban II and subsequent popes strongly condemned these attacks
Local bishops, clergy and laity attempted to defend the Jews with limited success
Myth/Fact: The Crusades even had a Children's Crusade
neither a Crusade nor an army of children
enthusiastic group of people who gathered plenty support and later ended
Pope Innocent III did not call this a crusade
urged non-combatants to stay home
fast, alms, prayer
praised the zeal of the young and told them to go home!
Fact/Myth: JPII apologized for the Crusades
he was criticized for not apologizing
he apologized for the 4th Crusade and so did the current pope at the time in 1204
Pope Innocent III tried to avoid that Crusade!!!
Fact/Myth: Muslims are not upset with the West because they WON!
The Muslim world used to celebrate the Crusades as a great victory for themselves - THEY WON!!
western authors have recast history
"How does a man love according to divine precept his neighbor as himself when, knowing that his Christian brothers in faith and in name are held by the perfidious Muslims in strict confinement and weighed down by the yoke of heaviest servitude, he does not devote himself to the task of freeing them? . . . Is it by chance that you do not know that many thousands of Christians are bound in slavery and imprisoned by the Muslims, tortured with innumerable torments?"
Pope Innocent III
Brief Explanation of what happened
-1097 an army arrived in Constantinople.
-Seige of Nicaea and Antioch.
-Tripoli and Edessa were also established
-In 1144 the Turks recaptured the city of Edessa.
-King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad of Germany.
-Captured the city of Damascus
-Defenses set up around Jerusalem... they didn't do so well.
-sack of Constinople
-Crusaders were in debt to Venice.
-Thought that the Constantinopolitans had sided with Saladin.
What started it?
-2/3 of the Christian World
-Seljuk Turks, a new militant Islamic nation, persecuted Christians especially in Palestine and Syria and were expanding.
-In 1071 the Turks annihilated the Byzantine army.
-The Eastern Emperor asked Pope Urban II for help.
-Most famous why?
-Set out to defend Christian Kingdom against Saladin.
-1187 Battle of Hattin, Saladin wiped out the armies of the Christian Kingdom and captured the relic of the cross
which lead to this crusade.