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Transcript of Digestion
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are an energy storage in the body. Sugar and starch are important carbohydrates in our diet. They come in starch particles, which are too big to go through the lining of the small intestine, to go to the blood stream and use it for respiration. Therefore, enzymes break down starch to form glucose, a smaller particle which can go through. Starch is abundant in potatoes, pasta, maize, bread, rice and cereals. Sugar in our diet, mainly appears as sucrose. Carbohydrates contain the element carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. (for example C6H12O6). They are the cheapest and most readily available source of energy. One gram of carbohydrates can provide 16 kilojoules (kJ) of energy. When carbohydrates are oxidized to provide energy by respiration they are broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
Fats: Animal fats are found in meat, milk, cheese, butter, egg- yolk, candy and jam. Plant fats occur as oils in fruits (for example: palm oil.) and seeds (for example: sunflower seed oil). Fats and oils are also known as lipids. 1 gram of fat gives 3 kJ of energy.
Proteins: Lean meat, fish eggs, soya beans, milk and cheese are important sources of animal protein. Protein molecules consist of long chains of amino acids. There are about 20 different amino acids in animal protein. The shape of a proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen an nitrogen, and many contain sulfur.
Fibres: When we eat vegetables and other fresh plant material, we take in a large quantity of plant cells. The cell walls of plants consist mainly of cellulose, but we don't have enzymes for digesting. The plant cell walls reach the large intestine without being digested. The undigested part of the diet is called fibre or roughage. Vegetable fibre supplies useful food material.
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamins and minerals: Vitamins are a group of organic substances quite unrelated to each other in their chemical structure. Plants can make vitamins in their leaves. 15 or more vitamins have been identified and they are classified into 2 groups: Water-soluble or fat-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins are found in animal fats or vegetable oils. The water-soluble vitamins are present in green leaves, fruits and cereal grains. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic elements in the soil which are transformed into an organic compound for use by the human body. There are different types of minerals such as calcium, iron, potassium and zinc.
What does the body break carbohydrates, fats, proteins and fiber into ?
Carbohydrates can be divided into two groups : simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. If you eat an apple, which is a simple carbohydrate, this is what happens :
• fructose molecules are converted to glucose in your small intestine and are then absorbed in your bloodstream.
• The rest is digested in your gut
If you eat a complex carbohydrate, e.g. mashed potatoes, the following happens :
• Complex starch molecules need more work and time to convert into glucose.
• Saliva starts breaking them down in maltose.
• In your small intestine, enzymes break the maltose down into smaller glucose molecules.
• The glucose is then absorbed in your bloodstream by the small intestine.
Humans need all the nutrients and right proportions to have a healthy body and diet.
by Julee, Shruti and Jessica
"Healthy Eating." Healthy Eating. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.
"How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats | Diabetes Forecast Magazine." How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats | Diabetes Forecast Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2013.
Fiber (e.g. fruit) is a complex carbohydrate, but it is an exception and doesn't break down into glucose. Fiber stays the same and helps your body for movement and flow in the intestines and to push out waste. Water is also used for movement of waste. Fiber is very important for your health.
Foods containing proteins (e.g. fish), are broken down into amino acids by your body. They can be stored as energy but the body mainly uses them to catalyze chemical reactions, for communication between cells and transporting molecules. Proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones, muscle growth, and other essential biological equipment.
Fats are used for energy. Fat is immediate energy and has fatty acids and glycerol particles which go through the lining of the small intestine and into blood.They are then captured by "hungry" cells. Fatty acids that aren't needed right away are stored in fat cells till they are needed.