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The Muscular System

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by

Jessica Fielder

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of The Muscular System

The Muscular System
The Muscular System
The ability to move is an essential activity of the human body.
½ our body weight comes from muscles
Consists of over 600 individual muscles.
3 purposes:
Body movement
Body shape
Body heat (maintain temp.)

The Muscular System
Body movements are determined by three types of muscles
Smooth (involuntary)
– cannot be controlled by will.
Cardiac

– control the contractions of the heart.
Skeletal (Voluntary)
– can be controlled by will.
Function of Skeletal muscles
Attach to bones to provide voluntary movement
Tendons:
strong, tough connective cords
Fascia:
tough, sheet-like membrane
Produce heat and energy for the body
Help maintain posture
Protect internal organs
Called striated (striped) because they have striations of alternating light and dark band

Functions of skeletal muscles continued...
Fleshy body parts are made of skeletal muscles
Provide movements to the limbs, but contract quickly, fatigue easily and lack the ability to maintain contraction for long periods
Blinking eyes, talking, breathing, eating, dancing and writing all produced by skeletal muscles

Functions of smooth muscles
Called smooth muscle because they are unmarked by striations, small spindle shaped
Unattached to bones, act slowly, do not tire easily and can remain contracted for a long time
Not under conscious control so they are also called involuntary muscles
Found in walls of internal organs (intestines, bladder, stomach, uterus, blood vessels)

Functions of cardiac muscles
Found only in the heart
Involuntary muscle
Requires a continuous supply of oxygen to function
Cardiac muscle cells begin to die after 30 seconds of oxygen cut-off
Striated and branched
Special Muscles
Sphincter (dilator) muscles are openings between
The esophagus and stomach
The stomach and small intestines
Walls of the anus, urethra and mouth
Open and close to control passage of substances

Characteristics of Muscles
All muscles have 4 common characteristics:

Excitability
– ability to respond to a stimulus (ie: nerve impulse)
Contractibility
– muscle fibers that are stimulated by nerves contract (become shorter) and causes movement
Extensibility
– ability to be stretched
Elasticity
– allows the muscle to return to its original shape after it has been stretched

Sources of heat/energy
When muscles work, they produce heat that our body needs to function properly
Major source of this energy is ATP – a compound found in muscle cells
ATP requires muscle cells to have oxygen, glucose and other materials circulated by the blood
When the muscle is stimulated, ATP is released, thus producing heat


ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate

Definitions
Adduction:
Moving a body part toward the midline
Abduction:
Moving a body part away from the midline
Flexion:
Decreasing the angle between two bones or bending body parts

Extention:
Increasing the angle between two bones or straightening the body part
Rotation:
Turning a body part around its own axis
Circumduction:
Moving in a circle at a joint

Definitions continued...
Muscle Fatigue
Buildup of lactic acid caused by vigorous exercise where blood is unable to be transported
Muscle Tone
State of partial contraction
Contractures
Loss of muscle tone occurs when muscles are not used for a long period of time. Muscles atrophy (shrink in size and lose strength) and result in this.
Foot drop is the most common type of contracture seen, but fingers, knees and other joints can be affected
MUSCLES YOU NEED TO KNOW THE FUNCTIONS OF:
Biceps
– flexes lower arm
Deltoid
– abducts arm; injection site
Sternocleidomastoid
– turns head
Gastrocnemius
– flexes sole of feet
Latissimus dorsi
– extends & adducts upper arm
Pectoralis major
– adducts and flexes upper arm
Intercostals
– moves ribs for breathing

More Muscles you need to know the function of
Trapezius
– extends head, moves shoulder
Triceps
– extends lower arm
Gluteus maximus
– extends thigh; injection site
Sartorius
– abducts thigh, flexes leg
Vastus lateralis
– extends leg
Rectus abdominus
– compresses the abdomen
Rectus femoris
– flexes thigh & extends lower leg
Tibialis anterior
– flexes and inverts foot

Problems with muscles
FIBROMYALGIA

Chronic, widespread pain in specific muscle site; numbness and tingling in arms or legs; headaches
Cause unknown
Treat symptoms – pain relief; stress reduction and muscle relaxers

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

Group of inherited diseases that cause chronic, progressive muscle atrophy resulting in total disability and early death
No cure
Treatment used to slow progression of disease

More Muscle problems...
MYASTENIA GRAVIS

Chronic condition where nerve impulses are not transmitted correctly leading to progressive muscular weakness and paralysis; affects respiratory muscles and can be fatal
Cause unknown
Treatment is supportive

MUSCLE SPASMS/CRAMPS

Sudden, painful involuntary muscle contractions
Caused from overexertion, low electrolytes or poor circulation
Treat by applying gentle pressure and stretching of the affected muscle

STRAIN
Overstretching of a muscle or tendon frequently in legs, back or arms
Caused by sudden muscle exertion
Treated by resting, muscle relaxants, or pain medications, elevation of extremity and applying hot/cold compresses

More Muscle problems...
Videos
RANGE OF MOTION
??? Why ???
Done to maintain health of the musculoskeletal system (muscle/skeleton)
Each joint and muscle is moved through its full range for patients with limited ability to move
Administered by: PT, RN, Assistant, or other authorized personnel (with training)
Done to prevent problems caused by lack of movement

Problems from lack of movement
Contractures
Tightening and shortening of a muscle resulting in a permanent flexing of a joint
Muscle atrophy
Muscles become weak and joints become stiff
Circulatory impairment
Blood clots and pressure ulcers can develop
Mineral loss
Especially calcium from the bones making bones brittle and easily to be fractured
Other problems
Poor appetite; constipation; urinary infections; respiratory problems; and pneumonia

Types of rom
Active ROM
Performed by patients who are able to move each joint without assistance
Active assistive ROM
Patient actively moves the joints but receives assistance to complete the entire range
Passive ROM
Another person moves each joint for a patient who is not able to exercise
Resistive ROM
Exercises are performed by a PT against resistance

Definitions...
Abduction
– moving away from midline
Adduction
– moving toward midline
Flexion
– bending of body part
Extension
– straightening of body part
Rotation
– moving around its own axis
Circumduction
– moving in a circle at a joint

Body Mechanics
4 main reasons...
Muscles work best when used correctly
Correct use of muscles makes lifting, pulling and pushing easier
Prevents unnecessary fatigue and strain therefore, saves energy
Prevents injury to self

8 rules of good body mechanics
Maintain broad base of support (8-10 in.)
Bend from hips and knees to get close to object
Use strongest muscles: shoulders, arms, hips, thighs
Use weight of body to help push/pull

Carry heavy objects close
Avoid twisting body; turn whole body when changing direction
Avoid bending for long periods
Get help if object is too heavy
The muscle game
Girls on one side of the room
Split into groups of 3-4
Guys on the other side of the
Split into groups of 3-4
Pick one person to be "the body"
Other players must accurately label the muscles given on "the body" using paper and clothes pins
First group to label their body volunteer correctly wins a prize!
The Rules!
This game is a privilege and it can be taken away.
Any candy given must be eaten in this room or put away to be eaten at home.
Any inappropriate touching of "the body" volunteer will result in disciplinary action to be decided by Mr. Pacheco and game disqualification!
Please be mature!
Have fun, and may the odds be ever in your favor!
Trapezius
– extends head, moves shoulder
Triceps
– extends lower arm
Gluteus maximus
– extends thigh; injection site
Sartorius
– abducts thigh, flexes leg
Vastus lateralis
– extends leg
Rectus abdominus
– compresses the abdomen
Rectus femoris
– flexes thigh & extends lower leg
Tibialis anterior
– flexes and inverts foot
Biceps
– flexes lower arm
Deltoid
– abducts arm; injection site
Sternocleidomastoid
– turns head
Gastrocnemius
– flexes sole of feet
Latissimus dorsi
– extends & adducts upper arm
Pectoralis major
– adducts and flexes upper arm
Intercostals
– moves ribs for breathing
Muscles to label
Full transcript