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Unit 3 meterology energy budget weather

Standard 3, Objective 1: Utah State Core, Earth Systems; file 1 of 2

Cassie Grether

on 22 January 2018

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Transcript of Unit 3 meterology energy budget weather

Unit 3 - Wind, Energy, Weather 1 of 2
Albedo LAB
II. Earth's energy budget & Greenhouse Gases
Standard 3, Objective 1: Indicators a, b & c
Sun's Intensity of Light
Standard 3 - Objectives 1, Utah State Core, Earth Science

Earth's Energy Budget
What is a budget?
Earth's Energy Budget
The Earth's energy budget is the amount of energy available to fuel organisms and to keep the atmosphere warm.
Instead of Money
We're talking about energy from the Sun.
According to NASA...
The sun sends us energy through space through electromagnetic radiation.
Nearly all of this radiation is shortwave part of the spectrum.
When this shortwave radiation hits a molecule it can be absorbed.
If absorbed, the radiation can be re-emitted as longwave radiation (aka heat radiation).
The Sun's Energy Break Down
Incoming solar radiation = 174 PW (petawatts) (shortwave radiation)
atmosphere = 10 PW
clouds = 35 PW
Earth's surface = 7 PW
atmosphere = 33 PW
land and ocean = 89 PW
Transfer to heat energy (longwave radiation) radiated
From atmosphere to space 111 PW
From surface to space 10 PW
26 PW absorbed by atmsophere
Figure out the percentages in your table.
Of all the incoming solar radiation, how much radiation is either reflected or radiated back to space?
Is our energy budget in equilibrium?
III. The Greenhouse Effect
A. The Greenhouse Effect:
When the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere temporarily hold in heat slowing heat's escape to space.

During the day our heat is recharged by the sunlight, but not at night. Both times we are loosing heat, but during the day we have a net gain.

1. We call it the greenhouse effect
because the atmosphere helps to keep the planet warm like a greenhouse does for plants, but instead of glass, our atmosphere has greenhouse gases.
b. The way a greenhouse or our atmosphere works is, light comes in from the sun as
radiation. Once it is absorbed by molecules on Earth and in the atmosphere it is changed to
longwave or heat
radiation. This longer wave makes it harder to leave the planet and gets trapped temporarily in by the atmosphere.
This is just like your car. ON a hot day….
shortwave radiation comes through our windshield. It transfers to heat energy or longwave radiation and gets trapped inside.
Our atmosphere holds on to heat. It's why we don't freeze at night.
Some greenhouse gases are better than others in absorbing and re-radiating.
Methane is 23 times better at capturing and re-radiating heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. Some CFC molecules are capable of absorbing and re-radiating 10,600 more times better than CO2.
Why does everyone whine about CO then?
blanket analogy
Greenhouse Experiment
The Earth is Tilted
At different times of the year, Utah receives differing amounts of solar radiation.
In one of our investigation we tested different latitudes by changing the angle of a our solar cell to match the angles of latitude for different locations on our planet.
How many hours of sunlight (approximately) will we get during an equinox?
During the summer in Utah, the tilt of Earth allows us to point towards the sun.
Would this cause us to get more or less solar radiation from the sun? Would this change the intensity of light we receive?
What about the hours? Would we get more or less daylight hours during the summer solstice than during an equinox?
During the winter in Utah our tilt causes us to tilt away from the sun.
Would this cause Utah to receive more or less solar radiation during the winter?
What about hours of daylight? Are there less daylight hours or more during the winter solstice?
FUN Fact: During the month of December the Earth is closer to the sun than any other time during the year.
Is there something on Earth that would show us this tilt? (hint: you can cast it, but you won't catch any fish)
Noon at the equator
The shadow is directly below the person.
The shadow is cast past the person.
Why are they different?
Noon at 41 degrees (Utah)
What about different times of the day?
In which photograph is the person experiencing the most intense solar radiation?
About which time of day receives the most intense solar radiation independent of location?
The hottest time of day is between 2 and 4 in the afternoon. Why, do you think?
Take Note
A. The angle in which the sun's rays hit our planet with the most intensity is 90 degrees.
Because our planet is curved like
a ball the sun's rays
hit the planet at all sorts of angles.
B. During an equinox the sun's rays are most direct over the equator.
This causes the sun's light to be most intense on the equator.
C. Summer (Northern Hemisphere), the most intense rays are located at the Tropic of Cancer.
D. During the Winter (Northern Hemisphere), the most intense rays are located at the Tropic of Capricorn.

F. The tilt of the Earth on its axis allows the intensity of light to change and during the winter causes us to receive less energy from the sun. The tilt does NOT make us closer to the sun.

These changes in the angle of intensity of solar radiation is what causes us to have seasons.
This is also known as the tilt.
Energy Budget Reminder
B. absorption vs. reflection
a. Which absorbs more radiation, light or dark colors?
What color a substance is and what it is made of will determine how much radiation it will absorb and how much it will reflect.
i. albedo is the amount of light that is reflected off of a surface.

We are going to do a lab today that tests that very idea.
Follow the lab sheet for Energy Absorption and Reflection.

VI. The Layers of the Atmosphere
The Earth is made up of layers.
Guess what else has layers.
Your Skin! Ewwww....
Yeah, the atmosphere has layers.
The most dense layers are at the bottom while the least dense layers are at the top.
In reality the atmosphere isn't very thick compared to the whole Earth.
In diagrams we tend to exaggerate things so we can see them better.
A. The atmosphere is made up of layers.
a. troposphere
b. stratosphere
c. mesosphere
d. thermosphere
e. exosphere
Atmosphere Diagram
where auroras occur
where "shooting stars" are
where ozone layers is
where weather happens
C. The troposphere is where all weather happens.
Hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, cloud formation and winds happen here.
Basically its where.....
it's happenin'
D. Stratosphere is very important because it holds 90 percent of the Earth’s ozone.

a. Ozone is an important gas that absorbs UV (ultraviolet radiation) from the sun. This radiation would burn and blister our skin in moments.

b. Ozone is a poisonous gas to breath.
So ozone is awesome, cuz it keeps us alive and stuff and allows our skin to stay on our bodies. So that's cool. BUT.......
OZONE... good or bad?
c. Ozone molecules are highly reactive oxidizing agents that tend to stick to large molecules lining our respiratory tracts (our lungs).
Ozone chemically react with the cells in our airways damaging cells. This can lead to: asthma attacks, inflammation, irritation, burning and just make it hard to breath.
Because of this it is considered an air pollutant in the troposphere.
SO, good or bad?
d. ozone hole
i. CFCs (aka chloroflourcarbons) react with the O3 molecule and create new chemical bonds and different molecules; this removes ozone from the ozone layer leaving gaps or holes in the ozone;
What? You want more vocab?
Make sure to read through the definitions to the follow words during the week to keep them in your memory.
trade winds, westerlies, polar easterlies, Hadley cell, Ferrel cell, Polar cell
VI. Atmospheric Circulation
A. Atmospheric circulation: process where cold dense low pressure air mixes with warmer high pressure air.
B. Air from the cold poles flows to the warm equator in convection cells.

HEY! We've heard of those!
C. Heated air from the ground rises, creating
a low pressure
zone below. Air flows from
high pressure
low pressure.
This movement causes
The more difference between the pressures the faster the wind.
D. When air cools it
condenses, is denser, and then sinks. This is high pressure.
Circulation occurs vertically (up and down) as well as horizontally (from equator to poles along the ground).
E. Atmospheric circulation cells (convection cells)
draw a diagram of the Earth in your notes and label the different atmospheric convection cells.
(Hadley, Ferrel, Polar)
These show the movement of air vertically
a. prevailing winds are named by
where they are coming from; example:
westerlies blow in from the west.
c. In between these prevailing winds exists areas of alternating
high and low pressure belts.
Weird... Why would that be?
16:36 minutes
13:00 around stoppage pos.
0:46 m -1:45 m
Diagram that!
d. Coriolis Effect - a phenomenon that causes fluids, like water and air, to curve as they travel across or above Earth's surface.
i. Why do the winds appear to curve?
G. What drives this atmospheric circulation? (or what makes the air move?)
a. The heat provided by the
a difference of pressure
between the poles causing the air to equalize or move (this is wind).
standard 3, objective 1, indicator c
Movement of the atmosphere
Video on Atmospheric Circulation
end around 20 minutes.
Q: Only 70% of all incoming solar radiation coming in turns to heat that warms the surface of the Earth. But, the sun is shining on us all the time constantly supplying us with light energy. However, over our planet's history we have had periods of warming and periods of cooling. Why don't we just keep getting hotter and hotter?
IV. Sun's intensity of light
G. The Earth is the closest to the sun in December (Winter in Northern Hemisphere).
We are FARTHEST in our orbit during the month of JULY!
things like
clouds and snow reflect
high amounts of light and have a
high albedo.
things like
dirt, blacktops, and plants have low albedo
and absorb light and re-radiate
Light energy and what happens when it interacts with matter.
When light interacts with the material what are the two things we observed happening?
How were you able to tell that the light was being absorbed?
Our lab was testing albedo. Based on what we were measuring, what do you think albedo means?
Take a look at your data:
Which substance had the highest albedo?
Which substance has the lowest albedo?
In this experiment we were using light, a type of energy. Again, what happened to the light when it interacted with matter? (2 things)
The light that was reflected bounced off the object unchanged.
What happened to the energy that was absorbed?
When light interacts with matter the energy doesn't disappear it merely changes form.
It changes to heat energy.
How does heat transfer again?
The sun puts out tremendous amounts of energy, but not all of it reaches us here on Earth. When we talk about energy from the sun and the energy we receive from Earth we lump it all into two categories:
LONG WAVE radiation & SHORT WAVE radiation
The sun is very, very hot. Heat from the sun, however, never reaches Earth, WHY?
If heat never reaches us through the vacuum of space, why do we get warm from the sun's energy? (ie. what is the energy emitting from the sun that is reaching us?)
1. Energy that heats the surface of the planet comes in from the sun as shortwave radiation (light).
2. By the time this radiation is filtered by the atmosphere it is mostly UV (ultraviolet) and visible light radiation.
B. Earth's Surface energy
C. What happens when the light energy interacts with matter?
1. Absorption vs. reflection
a) When shortwave radiation (light energy) becomes absorbed by matter it changes the wave into longwave radiation (heat energy).
1. Reflected:
to throw back (heat, light, or sound) without absorbing it (example: mirror)
a) Albedo:
the reflectivity off an object
2. Absorbed:
take in or soak up energy by chemical action. Absorption of light energy makes atoms vibrate allowing them to give off heat energy transferring light (shortwave) to heat (longwave).
3. Scatter:
throw in random directions without being absorbed.
(Large amounts of blue visible light is scattered by the atmosphere causing the sky to be blue.)
Heat Energy of Different Substances
How does the albedo of an object relate to the amount of heat that is radiated off of an object? Back up your statements with evidence.
C. Diagram of the Earth's Energy Budget
Draw in diagram
Record this table in your notes:
D. Shortwave radiation vs. Longwave & Our Energy Budget
~30 %

Reflected or scattered directly back into space.
Absorbed & re-radiated as longwave radiation (heat energy)
C. Common greenhouse & how they enter the atmosphere:
Carbon dioxide CO - respiration, decay, burning fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions
Water vapor H O - evaporation, volcanic eruptions, respiration
Methane CH - natural gas, decay, wetlands, digestion processes
Ozone O - natural atmospheric processes, industry
Nitrous oxides (NO and NO ) - bacteria waste, fertilizers, burning fossil fuels;
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (abnormal) - man-made chemical (human caused); used in: manufacturing

Seasons Investigation
H. Seasons Diagrams
Where does the wind come from? Why do we have wind?
b. Add in names of the winds on your diagram
The Coriolis Effect
1.Earth spins on its axis from west to east. As it does this the Earth spins below the atmosphere and
winds get deflected.
2. Winds in the Northern Hemisphere get deflected to the
Winds in the Southern Hemisphere get deflected to the
I. Sun's energy and Earth's heat
A. Section Vocabulary
4. Solar radiation:
radiation from the sun
5. Shortwave radiation:
highly energetic electromagnetic waves with shorter wavelengths including visible light & UV radiation
6. Longwave radiation:
low energy electromagnetic waves with long wavelengths including heat energy (infrared radiation)
A. Atmosphere:
mixture of gases that surround a planet (aka air)
2. Greenhouse gases:
gases that absorb and
re-emit heat in our atmosphere
E. Equilibrium:
1- a balance between forces or systems
2- stable conditions
B. Energy budget:
a balance (equilibrium) of incoming radiation (sun light) to outgoing radiation (reflected light and escaping heat) on Earth
D. Absorption vs. Reflection
1. Which absorbs more radiation, light or dark colors?
What color a substance is and what it is made of will determine how much radiation it will absorb and how much it will reflect. Dark colors absorb more light energy while light colors reflect more light energy.
2. How much an object reflects is its albedo. Ex: snow has a high albedo while roads have a low albedo.
B. The Way It Works
Light enters the atmosphere, some is absorbed and turned to heat energy.

Most light reaches the planet where some is reflected back to space, but most is absorbed.

Nearly all of the absorbed light turns into heat and radiates into the atmosphere.

Greenhouse gases capture that heat energy and bounce it around until it finally escapes to space.
D. What is the atmosphere made up of?
Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Argon ~1%
All greenhouse gases ~0.04%
Read Chapter 10 in the Textbook
QUIZ 1: Meteorology - Solar radiation, Energy Budget, Greenhouse effect & gases, & Seasons
a. Hadley cells
b. Ferrel cells
c. polar cells
Go back to page 6 of your note and let's add in some definitions.
Atmospheric circulation -
is the large-scale movement of air by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth through convection cells creating wind.
Coriolis effect -
The apparent deflection of fluids on the planet due to the spinning of the Earth; This is what causes a hurricane to spin.
ozone -
chemical made of three oxygen atoms bonded together; because of its density it forms a layer in the stratosphere that filters UV radiation; is poisonous to breathe
pollutant -
substance that harms life
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