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Transcript of Gobal Poverty
Relative Poverty is is where income levels are relatively too low to enjoy a reasonable standard of living in that society. LACK OF EDUCATION CORRUPTION UNEMPLOYMENT ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SERVICES NATURAL DISASTERS If a families total income is less than the families threshold, then that family and every individual in it is considered in poverty.
According to the 2011 U.S. Census Bureau, if a family of four (two adults, two children under 18) that earns less than $23,021 they are in poverty.
Often GDP is used as an indicator of poverty and can be used to measure against other factors such as; life expectancy, infant mortality.
In addition it is important to remember it is not just about money but access to health and education that people look for. BONO INTRODUCTION GRAMEEN BANK EVALUATION WORLD VISION MORTENSON REPORT This is a school style report evaluating the World Banks progress against the 8 Millennium Goals. HEALTH SERVICES- In many developing nations health care is provided jointly by the government and the private sector. Public health institutions are the only hope for the underprivileged people. Most of the developing nations are plagued by problems of under nutrition and a host of infections. Epidemics of diarrhea diseases provide a rough guide to the poor sanitation of the community. Safe drinking water is a dream for millions even now.
NATURAL DISASTERS- Natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes have devastated communities throughout the world. Developing countries often suffer much more extensive and acute crises at the hands of natural disasters, because limited resources inhibit the construction of adequate housing, infrastructure, and mechanisms for responding to crises. Downward Spiral- no education -> no knowledge -> don't know about rights -> harder to get a job -> no income -> poor well-being -> no food -> sickness -> death Facts about poverty and education
7. 40 percent of children living in poverty aren’t prepared for primary schooling.
Nearly 115 million children are out of school. Globally, some 53 percent of the children out of primary school are girls, meaning that for every 100 boys out of school, 115 girls are in the same situation.
An estimated 130 million of the world's 15 to 24 year old's cannot read or write. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: B
World Bank you have been doing well, in terms of reducing hunger. You have made a good start towards achieving that goal. You have reduced most of Asia to moderate huger, leaving only Sub-Saharan Africa with a very high hunger level. I am sure that with great determination you will complete your goal on time. Millennium Goal 1 Millennium Goal 2 Millennium Goal 3 Millennium Goal 4 Millennium Goal 5 Millennium Goal 6 Millennium Goal 7 Millennium Goal 8 Achieve universal primary education: B+
World Bank you have done considerably well in reaching this goal, considering the children with primary education in Sub-Saharan Africa has risen from 58 to 76 per cent between 1999 and 2010. This is a tremendous effort and with the efforts of the other developing countries you are on target to reach your goal in 2015. Promote gender equality and empower women: B+
Equality in women across the developing countries has increased with a good chance of completing your goal. With most countries being parity or close to you are on target. Don’t slow down though, keep working hard and you may even reach it before time is up. Reduce child mortality: B-
Well done World Bank, you have shown that it is possible and that you are on track to reaching this goal. With all developing countries having low – moderate mortality apart from Sub-Saharan Africa, this has proven your determination. Considering you have made a 35% decrease in under five year old moralities, you are doing well. Keep up the good work! Improve maternal health: D-
World Bank, overall you have not progressed as much as you need to, to be able to reach your goal in time. With a high number of developing regions still having high - very high mortality rate you are going to struggle to achieve this. Sub-Saharan Africa still needs a lot of work in this area. Keep working hard, even though you will not reach your goal you are still making a big impact! Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases: B+
Combating HIV/AIDS looks like a huge task, with the current progress you have made I am beginning to believe that this has become an achievable goal! Again Sub-Saharan Africa is still trailing behind with a high incidence. It is really impressive to be able to read that at the end of 2010 6.5 million people had accesses to alternative therapy to help with AIDS and HIV. Ensure environmental sustainability: B-
World Bank, you are on track with most of the needy regions but you are still struggling in all of Asia. With most of the developing countries having access to clean/safe drinking water you are doing well. You need to keep up the good work to ensure you meet your goal by 2015, it looks like you will achieve this (A). You still have a fair bit of work to do to ensure you are able to halve the proportion of people without sanitation. With most of Africa and parts of Asia still without sanitation you are trailing behind and slowing yourself down. Develop a global partnership for development: B
Well done World Bank, you have significantly improved the global partnership with a high percentage of developing countries now having increased access to the internet. Keep working on parts of Asian and Oceania and you will have a good chance at completing this goal. There are hundreds of facts related to poverty and lack of health services, here's a few;
Malaria kills approximately 1 million children per year, many of them under age 5 and most of them in sub-Saharan Africa.
In developing countries, one in every six infants is not immunized against tuberculosis.
While the number of deaths due to measles fell dramatically between 2000 and 2007, one in every four children in developing countries is not immunized against measles.
Only 55 percent of the world's infants are fully immunized against hepatitis B.
Only 69 percent of newborns are protected against tetanus.
Malaria, together with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the poorest countries in the world.
There are 1.8 million diarrhea-related deaths per year among young children.
Acute respiratory infections annually kill an estimated 2 million children under the age of 5.
•Six million children under five die every year as a result of hunger Health has a key role in determining the livelihoods and development of communities. Despite acknowledgment in the United Nations Millennium poll that health is the most important thing that people value in life, it remains a topic largely shunned by political leaders. This is then connected directly to corruption and the lack of help and support from the government. The condition of healthcare and the health of citizens is an issue which must not be ignored: as both a cause and consequence of poverty, an unhealthy community leads to an unhealthy nation. The prominence of AIDS, HIV and the deaths of children are big reasons why we need to make a big difference.
People living in poverty often live in conditions which cause or exacerbate health problems. Lack of access to clean water and sanitation exposes people to infection and diseases such as diarrhea. Lack of nutritious food causes malnutrition and makes people more vulnerable to disease. Many such health issues are preventable or treatable, but people living in poverty are often unable to access and pay for basic healthcare and medicines. There are many facts and statistics related to the link between poverty and the environment: to name a few;
At least 1.6 billion people globally do not have electricity in their homes, and approximately 54 percent of people in developing countries lack access to modern forms of energy.
Each year, acute respiratory infections kill approximately 2 million children under age 5. Worldwide, 60 percent of acute respiratory infections are due to environmental conditions.
Diarrhea diseases take the lives of almost 2 million children each year. Eighty to 90 percent of these diseases are related to environmental conditions, specifically contaminated water and inadequate sanitation.
More than 6 million people are blind from trachoma, a disease caused by the lack of water along with poor hygiene practices. Studies show that an adequate water supply could reduce trachoma infections by 25 percent.
More than 200 million people live in coastal flood zones, which would be dramatically impacted by rising waters. While some 4 billion people — 60 percent of the world's population — live within 65 miles of a coast.
The number of people living in countries where cultivated land is critically scarce is projected to increase from 448 million in 2005 to between 559 million and 706 million in 2025. ONE's origins go back to 2002 and the founding of DATA (debt, AIDS, trade Africa), the anti-poverty advocacy organization with which ONE merged in 2008. ONE's campaign priority is to fight extreme poverty and preventable disease primarily in Africa. They do this by raising public awareness and pressuring political leaders to support smart and effective policies and programs that are saving lives, helping to put kids in school and improving futures.
Co founded by Bono, ONE is an independent and works closely with African activists and policy makers. They hold world leaders to account for the commitments they've made to fight extreme poverty, and they campaign for better development policies, more effective aid and trade reform.
ONE works on a macro scale which means that they are targeting a large area and are working globally, in this case, to combat Global Poverty. ONE's main focus is on providing retro viral drugs for HIV sufferers in Africa and providing medication for the prevention of malaria. The Grameen Foundation headquarters were founded in 1997 by friends of Grameen Bank, this was to help micro-finance practitioners spread the Grameen philosophy worldwide. They lay the groundwork for measurable results by creating and piloting our approaches on the field, working with international and local partners as well as with the poor themselves. This is to create lasting solutions that can work worldwide, transforming the lives of millions. Grameen also helps poverty-focused organizations reach more people by providing them with the tools and services they need to better understand their customers and themselves.
Yunus and the Grameen foundation are working on a micro scale, this means that they are working with the lowest-income clients and are helping people to get out of poverty. The Grameen foundation puts sometimes only .40c towards helping people get out of poverty. They work mainly in Bangladesh but this has been expanded to the rest of the world. Through Bono's campaign with global leaders, all countries have promised to give 1% of GDP to fighting global poverty, the only ones close are the Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden and Denmark with 0.7%. Australia is trailing behind with only 0.32% going towards poverty. This is a report focusing on the causes, effects and solutions related to global poverty. It will explore the complexity and extent of poverty, using a range of statistics and information from various sources. Included will be 4 possible solutions. This will include their philosophy’s, their plans and actions and the outcomes achieved. This will then be evaluated to determine the best solution and why it is the preferred option.
Included in the presentation will be a school style report, outlining the progress that the World Bank has made towards their 8 millennium development goals. The conclusion will tie together the information to show why poverty is complex but how actions are making a difference. Education plays an important role in every part of the world, it is especially important in areas of poverty because it provides the people with knowledge of their rights, how to keep themselves and their families healthy and more importantly about raising a child. Through simple education you could halve the amount of infant moralities because women would know how to look after their child. CONCLUSION EDUCATION- generally the lack of education keeps children from obtaining jobs that would lift them and their families out of poverty. Often, children are kept from school because they are needed at home to support their family with additional income.
CORRUPTION- The governments of many developing countries are often dysfunctional, unstable, and corrupt. Lack of government infrastructure (public sanitation, schools, social welfare, etc.) can be crippling for the poor. UNEMPLOYMENT- Unemployment is one of the biggest contributors to global poverty. If a child is born into poverty when their parents are unemployed this effects their entire life. If they become ill when they are children they do not have the money to ensure they can recover and without money they cannot have an education, thus It can have an effect on their future employment.
ENVIRONMENTAL- Throughout the developing world, the poor often rely on natural resources to meet their basic needs through agricultural production and gathering resources essential for household maintenance, such as water, firewood, and wild plants for consumption and medicine. Thus, the depletion and contamination of water sources directly threaten the livelihoods of those who depend on them. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate. According to International Labor Organization report, more than 197 million people globally are out of work or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012. The basic reason for poverty comes down to a lack of adequate income. The lack of employment opportunities is the biggest problem in most of the developing and under developed countries. Corruption occurs when a government or ‘political’ acts in an official capacity for his or her own personal gain. Whether it is a rich or a poor nation all elements of society are affected in some way, corruption undermines political development, democracy, economic development, the environment and people’s health. Globalization had created conditions whereby corruption can flourish and exacerbate the conditions of people around the world.
Corruption and poor governance are the two biggest barriers in developing healthcare and education in developing countries. They also limit individual’s capabilities to access jobs and social benefits, they corrode systems of the law and inhibit the effectiveness of aid.
Corruption by itself does not produce poverty it has direct consequences on the economic and governance factors. Corruptions affect poverty first by impacting economic growth, which then impacts poverty levels. In other words, increased corruption reduces economic investment, distorts markets, hinders competition and creates inefficiencies by increasing the costs of doing business. Professor Muhammad Yunus is internationally recognized for his work in poverty alleviation and the empowerment of poor women. Professor Yunus has successfully melded capitalism with social responsibility to create the Grameen Bank, a microcredit institution committed to providing small amounts of working capital to the poor for self-employment. Global disaster risk is highly concentrated in poorer countries with weaker governance. Weak infrastructure, crumbling buildings, rapid population growth, poor governance, precarious rural livelihoods and ecosystem decline all underpin the rapid expansion of disaster risk, especially weather-related risk, in the developing world.
In many parts of the world, environmental degradation—the deterioration of the natural environment, including the atmosphere, bodies of water, soil, and forests—is an important cause of poverty. Environmental problems have led to shortages of food, clean water, materials for shelter, and other essential resources. As forests, land, air, and water are degraded, people who live directly off these natural resources suffer most from the effects. People in developed countries, on the other hand, have technologies and conveniences such as air and water filters, refined fuels, and industrially produced and stored foods to buffer themselves from the effects of environmental degradation. About 95 percent of deaths caused by disasters occur in poor countries. A disaster of similar nature and size causes more deaths in poor countries than in rich ones.
After a disaster, disease spreads quickly if there is no clean water and limited toilets available. Limited health care resources in poor countries (the number of doctors, hospitals, etc.) can be inadequate for dealing with the health emergencies that result from disasters.
Those living in poverty have no safety nets. For example, if they lose their crops because of drought, those in poverty have little or no savings to buy food. Poor people in poor countries do not have insurance to rebuild their homes after disasters. Their governments do not have the resources for disaster relief. Greg Mortenson is an American Humanitarian, professional speaker, writer and co-founder and former executive director for the non profit Central Asia Institute as well as the founder for the educational charity Pennies for Peace. Mortenson works to give schools and supplies to poor countries. Mortenson believe that people have the ability to break free from poverty if they have access to education. People are powerful if they work together.
Mortenson’s foundation ‘Central Asia Institute focuses on community based education, mainly for girls. Research shows that 5th grade education for a girl improves not only the basic indices of health for her and her family, but also helps her spread the value of education within her community. POVERTY CYCLE Central Asia Institute (CAI) was co-founded by Greg Mortenson in 1996 and is a registered non-profit organization with the mission to empower communities of Central Asia through literacy and education, especially for girls, to promote peace through education, and convey the importance of these activities globally. CAI’s programs include school building, scholarships, teacher support, public health, women’s vocational centers, and global outreach. Global outreach allows the CAI promote awareness of the importance of primary education, literacy, and cross-cultural understanding through its websites, publications, public events, the Pennies for Peace Program, and the books Three Cups of Tea and Stones into Schools. Mortenson's foundation is working primarily to get girls into schools and for them to gain an education to be better aware of their rights, this will then further improve their community as women are the key to getting out of poverty. World Vision is a worldwide community development organization that provides short-term and long-term assistance to 100 million people worldwide (including 2.4 million children). We have 22,500 staff members working in 96 countries.
World vision has been encouraging people to work towards eliminating poverty and its causes for six decades. They work with people of all cultures, faiths and genders to achieve their goal. World vision do this through relief and development, policy advocacy and change, collaboration, education about poverty, and emphasis on personal growth. World Vision is only a partner in this process: we provide a safety net, technical support and finance. It is people themselves working towards their own development. Our mission is to be a Christian organization that engages people to eliminate poverty and its causes.
Our motivation: World Vision is committed to the poor because we are Christian. We work with people of all cultures, faiths and genders to achieve transformation. Our values: The values of WVA are at the core of all that we, as an organization, do. Our commitment to applying the values to the way we work makes us unique amongst other, similar, aid and development INGOs.
-We Are Christian -We Are Committed To The Poor -We Value People -We Are Stewards -We Are Partners
-We Are Responsive This graph demonstrates the link between unemployment and poverty. It shows the number of people who are unemployed compared to the amount of people living in poverty. Corruption means that the services people depend on – from drinking water to health clinics – suffer. They are often are of a low quality or not sufficient to meet society’s most basic needs. Corruption siphons off monies needed to improve them while also distorting policy decisions, such as where roads and schools are built. Education is key to building a society that can overcome poverty in a sustainable manner. Investing in human capital brings about powerful social change and creates opportunities for those in developing countries to realize their full potential and to become leaders of the generation to come. GLOBAL POVERTY PROJECT Extreme poverty is a complex issue; it wont/cant be solved overnight or by just one person. for the first time in history, making has the resources, the knowledge and the structure to see and end to extreme poverty within a generation. The GPP's focus is on awareness raising and education so that each of us become an active citizen. The Global Poverty Project has many partners who help them in the fight to eradicate extreme poverty, to name a few; PLAN, Fair Trade Association, Australian Youth Forum.
The Global Poverty Project focuses on 5 main questions:
- What is extreme poverty? - Can we do anything about it? - What are the barriers to ending extreme poverty? - Why should we care? - What can we do? 1.2 Million people still live in extreme poverty. In 1981 52% of people lived in extreme poverty
In 2005 25% of people lived in extreme poverty
In 2012 20.63% of people lived in extreme poverty 3/5 people who live in extreme poverty are females.
66% of the worlds work is done by females.
only 10% of the worlds income goes to women.
women own less than 1% of the worlds property The barriers that stop us ending extreme poverty are corruption, lack of infrastructure, trade, lack of knowledge, rights, climate change (natural disasters), money. This is a cycle that demonstrates the downward spiral that people go through once they have live below the line. It is important to remember that caring for the environment will provide a sustainable future for all human kind. Thus, deforestation, over cropping and desertification will inhibit this from being sustainable. A lack of education can have an impact on this as people don't have the knowledge of how to manage their land and resources efficiently. Poverty often confines poor people in rural areas to marginal lands, thus contributing to an acceleration of erosion, increased ecological vulnerability and landslides. Air, soil and water pollution also links to poor health; this is a problem for developing countries as they do not have access to proper health care and this then leads to the poverty downward spiral. Universal access to basic education and vocational training, community information on sound agricultural methods, waste management, natural resources management, coastal protection, water resources management, fisheries management are all essential in reducing poverty as well as in reducing the effects of poverty on the environment. This Prezi indicates the types of poverty, how poverty is measured, the causes and effects and of course the solutions. This has demonstrated the complexity of poverty through the in-depth descriptions of the causes, and shows the effects of poverty on many areas of everyday life. Poverty is measured by the GDP that a country has, also by how much you have to live on a day. The poverty line is $1.25 per day; this means that you have $1.25 to buy everything you need for that day.
Living in poverty has an effect on all areas of life, such as, health care, education, the environment and employment. So, if you get sick, you are unable to attend school of work, you then do not get any money, you often don’t have access to health care, and it affects other aspects of life such as access to education. Thus it is evident that poverty is a complex issue.
However, the good news is that many people are working towards eradicating extreme poverty and the progress with The Millennium Goals shows significant progress in a number of areas such as access to clean water and tackling hunger.
What is also evident is that everyone can make a difference. We have the power to eradicate extreme poverty in our generation, by taking a stand, whether this is by purchasing fair trade items, speaking out against human right trafficking or helping to educate others.
The other factor that deserves mention is the balance of power. While it may seem that the impoverished have no power, the work done by advocates like Bono, Yunus and Mortenson highlights that with the access to resources people in extreme poverty can change their lives, that of their families and even the lives of their whole community. People banding together can be very powerful.
Thorough research into each of these solutions leads me to say that it is evident all of these are needed to be able to combat global poverty. We need the ONE foundation because it works on a macro scale and it looks at providing retroviral drugs and medication to combat HIV and Malaria. We also need the help of Yunus with his knowledge and technology. Mortinson is about educating girls and provides a different angle of knowledge and ways of dealing with poverty. The global poverty project isn’t a solution as such, but more of a way of educating people and making them aware of the severity of poverty.
If I were to choose just one of these it would have to be Bono and the ONE foundation because they are having the biggest impact and are working on macro scale. I believe that with Bono working primarily with sub-Saharan Africa, which is the most impoverish country; he will be the biggest leader in eradicating extreme poverty.