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EDUC518 Web 2.0

By: Katrina Milton and Phillip Shlimon
by

Katrina Milton

on 17 October 2012

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Transcript of EDUC518 Web 2.0

EDUC518 The Application of Theories
of Learning to Classroom Practice

TAP Web 2.0 on Behaviorism

By: Katrina J. E. Milton
and
Phillip Shlimon Strengths and Weaknesses Concepts and Assumptions Lesson Redesign What is Behaviorism? Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism
as Found on Page 288 of Ormrod: Classical vs Instrumental/ Operant Conditioning
(Page 292 of Ormrod) Classical
Conditioning Instrumental/ Operant Conditioning Behaviorism is the theoretical perspective in which
learning and behavior are described and explained in
terms of stimulus-response relationships. Influence on the environment Learning as a behavior change Contiguity of events Concepts
and Assumptions Focus on observable events (stimuli and responses) Similarity of learning principles across species Classical conditioning= response is involuntary

When stimulus is presented, the response follows automatically with little
choice on the learner’s part.

Learning occurs resulting from stimulus
that comes before the response. Instrumental/ operant conditioning=
response is voluntary

Learner can control whether
or not to make a response.

Learning occurs resulting from stimulus
that comes after the response. Example of Classical Conditioning:

UCS-> CR
Food-> Drooling

UCS + CS= CR
Food + Bell= Drooling

CS-> CR
Bell-> Drooling

Legend:
UCS= Unconditioned Stimulus
CS= Conditioned Stimulus
CR = Conditioned Response Example of Instrumental/
Operant Conditioning:

S→-> R->→ S
Question→-> Student Raises Hand→->
Teacher Praises Student for
Their Raising Hand

Legend:
S= Stimuli
R= Response Reinforcement and Punishment Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Presentation Punishment Removal Punishment Response increases when a new stimulus
(presumably one the learner finds desirable)
is presented (Ormrod, 299)

Add something to make behavior more positive Example of Positive Reinforcement:
Award a student with candy
for doing well on a test Response increases when a previously existing stimulus (presumably one the learner finds undesirable)
is removed (Ormrod, 299)
Remove something to make behavior more positive Example of Negative Reinforcement:
If a student’s overall grade
is an A in the course, they will not
have to take the final exam Response decreases when a new stimulus
(presumably one the learner finds undesirable)
is presented (Ormrod, 299)

Add something to remove negative behavior Example of Presentation Punishment:
Students that use a curse word
during class must write “I will not use
profanity in the classroom” one hundred times Response decreases when a previously
existing stimulus (presumably one the learner
finds desirable) is removed (Ormrod, 299)

Remove something to remove negative behavior Example of Removal Punishment:
Recess is taken away
from a student to
make them stop talking Strengths and Weaknesses Weaknesses Stimulus-response principles
do not always provide a complete
picture of human learning Educational implications of the assumptions of behaviorism (as found
on Page 317 of Ormrod): The assumptions of behaviorism lead to the educational implications. The implications SHOULD be the strengths of behaviorism. If the implications are not the strongest part of the theory, the theory would be faulted (not the best possible). Therefore, the implications are the strengths of the behaviorism theory, otherwise the entire theory would be weak. Strengths Create a classroom environment that fosters desirable
student behaviors Conclude that learning has occurred
only when students exhibit a change
in classroom performance Identify specific stimuli (including
your own actions as a teacher) that
may be influencing students’ behaviors If you want students to associate
two events (stimuli, responses, or stimulus
and response), make sure those events
occur close together in time Remember that research with
nonhuman species often has
relevance for classroom practice Changing behavior ignores cognitive
factors that interfere with learning. Example:

Increasing amount of study time via reinforcement does not necessarily increase effectiveness. For students with significant weaknesses in knowledge and cognitive abilities, behavioral approaches may not as effective as cognitive ones. Reinforcement for academic
tasks may teach students
to finish objectives quickly
rather than well. Example:

Focusing on finishing a task quickly rather than learning from it. Tasks involving elaborate and creative, high-level thinking are not accomplished
efficiently solely with utilizing reinforcement theory Extrinsic reinforcement may undermine
the students enjoyment of the task
and see reinforcement activity as
manipulative and controlling. Example:

Disliking a particular subject due to the regimental
style of the teacher, rather than the student’s
interest and enjoyment of the subject itself. Theory Application Theory Application First way the behaviorism theory is used in the Mr. Kipp video: Second way the
behaviorism theory
is used in the
Mr. Kipp video: Instrumental/ operant response: A conditioned response
in which desired task “either increases or decreases as
a result of being followed by either reinforcement
or punishment, respectively (Omrod 291)."

Between 1:10-1:29, Mr. Kipp discusses how maintaining a
specific amount of reading will not only maintain the students’ level of reading, but improve it as well. Mr. Kipp utilizes
negative reinforcement theory to illustrate to the students
that foregoing a fraction of their summer playing time will help maintain and improve their reading skills. The fear of falling
behind their peers and classmates, and not moving up a
level in reading ability, acts as a stimulus and motivates
the students to perform the desired response. Students
find the idea of eroding and not improving their reading skills
as undesirable. The students’ nod as a response illustrates their new understanding of the importance of summer reading. Video's Script:
0:18-1:29, Mr. Kipp: “Ms. Franz has done some research, and read some research, that shows that in order to move up a level, to not only keep your reading muscles as strong as they are right now, but actually to build your reading muscles and move up a level, you need to read forty or more hours of independent reading this summer. Now that sounds like a lot, but let’s consider the numbers for a second. Forty hours equals ‘twenty-four hundred minutes,’ ‘two thousand and four hundred minutes.’ If you spread two thousand and four hundred minutes over six weeks of summer vacation, which is what you’ll have, that turns, that works out to about four hundred minutes a week. Ok, four hundred minutes a week divided by seven days in a week, readers, Tarjay, means that you are reading an average of about fifty-seven minutes a day, which if you round it is about an hour a day. So all that means readers, is that you need to read as much as you’ve been reading, not even any more, but as much as you’ve been reading this whole school year, and you will not only maintain where you are right now, but you will grow a level this summer. Nod your head if you, if you think that that’s something you are committed to doing and able to do.”
1:30: All the children nod their head in agreement
1:31, Mr. Kipp: “Great.”

3:10-14, Mr. Kipp: “You can see that this article is entitled ‘Summer Homework Should Be Banned.’”
3:15-19 Children break out into jubilant clapping and cheering Lesson Redesign Present a new way for teaching
the lesson (same students, subject,
theory)- using two different strategies Present a way to assess whether
the lessons are successful:

Page 107 of Anderson and Krathwohl discusses assessment in the following terms:
"For objectives that involve Remember, Understand, and Apply, there generally is a direct correspondence between process category and type of knowledge. We do intend, for example, students to recall facts (remember factual knowledge), interpret principles (understand conceptual knowledge), and execute algorithms (apply procedural knowledge)." Ways to Access Whether the First Strategy Was Successful:

Assign each student a paper card with their name on it and the numbers 1-10. For every book and summary the child completes, they will receive either one pizza or one serving of chicken wings. The pizza parlor would punch a hole out of their card corresponding to the correct number.
Every student that has ten holes punched in their card by the time summer vacation is over will be invited to a pizza party once school resumes. Ways to Access Whether the Second Strategy Was Successful:

On the last day of school, each child will be sent home with not only a reading list, but also a packet. The packet will include short summaries of the books, worksheets, and essay questions about the reading material. The packets will need to be completed and returned by the first day of school.
When the students return after summer vacation, the first week of English class will be spent discussing the books read. Short quizzes will be given after the discussion over the content of the books. First Strategy:

As the teacher, collaborate the summer reading program with a local pizza parlor. As an incentive for reading books on the reading list, students that read a chapter book and write a one-page summary of the book will receive a free one-topping pizza or a serving of chicken wings. By finishing their assigned readings and writing the summaries, the students would not only broaden their minds and strengthen their reading skills, they will receive free delicious food. Second Strategy:

Other than an added incentive, teaching the children that reading can be fun by itself would be a fun way to
promote summer reading. Having books on the reading
list that resonate with the students is important.
Having a separate reading list for boys and girls
could help motivate the children to read the stories. Examples would be "Treasure Island" by Robert Louis Stevenson and "The Hatchet" by Gary Paulsen for boys and "The Secret Garden" by Frances Hodgson Burnett
and "The Little House on the Prairie" by Laura
Ingalls-Wilder for girls. Classical Response: An unconditioned response is a
“response that is elicited by a particular (unconditioned)
stimulus without prior learning” (Ormrod 289).

Between 0:18-3:19, Mr. Kipp discusses the subject of summer reading with his students, explaining that reading during the summer can not only help them stay at the level of reading comprehension that they are currently at, but that it can help them grow a level. Mr. Kipp is teaching his students that reading during the summer is actually a good thing. Later in the video, when Mr. Kipp informs his students that the title of the article they will be reading is “Summer Homework Should Be Banned,” the class breaks out into cheering (3:10-19). Directly after being taught that summer reading is a good thing, the students react unconditionally: they cheer over the title of the article. Not having summer reading makes the children happy, and they voluntarily reacted in an unconditional manner when they cheered over the idea of not having to read over the summer. Like Mr. Kipp's strategy, the students' main objective is still to complete their summer reading. Instead of reading an article about how summer reading should be banned, the teacher would make the summer reading program a positive experience. In the video, the students were very excited about summer. The teacher should make them just as excited and motivated for summer reading.

The two strategies shown try to incorporate the idea that
summer reading can not only be educational, but also fun. Mr. Kipp's Classroom The Students Cheering at 3:18 Mr. Kipp Discussing the 40 Hours of Summer Reading at 0:44 Citations: Ormrod, E.J. (2011) Educational Psychology
Developing Learners (7th Edition). Boston:
Allen and Bacon.

Anderson, Lorin W. and David R. Krathwohl. (2001)
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing. New York: David McKay
Company, Inc.
Full transcript