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India's Resistance to British Imperialism
Transcript of India's Resistance to British Imperialism
Impact of Imperialism
Political and military explotation
Gandhi started his work for independence in 1915, when Great Britain instituted restrictive laws against Indians to suppress public opposition to World War I.
In 1919, he held a nationwide hartal (or strike) in which Indians refused to work and just fasted and prayed.
He also led the famous 1930 Salt March, where he and hundereds of other people marched to salt works in Dharamsala India, and collected salt in peaceful disobedience.
led many boycotts against British businesses, clothes, schools, products, etc. as well as marches as fasts
He was imprisoned many times for his work, the longest being sentenced to six years!
India independence was achieved in 1947
British Raj in India
India's Resistance to British Imperialism
Map of British control in India
Indians not accepted as equals to most British people
negative connotations and words referred to Indians were developed
they were seen as passive, generally backward, but ambitious
British sought to root out traditional ways and cultural values.
The Indian National Congress
Founded in 1885
Made up of mostly middle class intellectuals and the loyalists
Leader of the Indian Freedom movement against the British
Thousands of Indian citizens were massacred in 1857 by the British soldiers in response to the Sepoy Rebellion.
After the beginning of WWI, the British put extremely restrictive laws in India in order to control public opposition to the war.
For example, not allowing citizens to obtain salt not bought through the British salt monopoly.
During the Gujranwala Bagh massacre in 1919, hundreds of Indians were killed. Here is where Gandhi picked up a handful of mud to symbolize India shaking the foundations of the British Empire.
Between 60,000 and 100,000 Indians were arrested for making illegal salt
Extremists: Their goal was 'Swaraj' or self rule
Moderates: They demanded appointment of a royal commission, industrialisation of India, separation of judiciary and executive, freedom of press and, speech, representation of Indians in the legislature, appointment of Indians to higher posts, opening of technical and professional colleges
Pro-Changers: They wanted to weaken the constitutional structures from within
No-Changers: They wanted to distance themselves from the Raj
Violent: They believed that the use of violence was justified in opposing oppression
Non-Violent: They did not believe violence was justified. Gandhi was a main leader in this group
British Economic Interests
India served as a market for British goods. They prohibited the Indian to operate on its own.
The British East India Company set up three major trading posts in India.
India was home to many agricultural products like tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, and opium. They used these to trade with other countries.
Heart of Darkness
"They were conquerors, and for that you want only brute force—nothing to boast of, when you have it, since your strength is just an accident arising from the weakness of others. They grabbed what they could get for the sake of what was to be got. It was just robbery with violence, aggravated murder on a great scale, and men going at it blind—as is very proper for those who tackle a darkness. The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much" (1. 69).
The British rulers introduced laws that led many people to starve to death.
They forced farmers to produce crops that were not food grains during periods of famine while heavily taxing them throughout the famine.
They brutally suppressed uprisings with mass murder which lead to the lose of innocent lives
: General Dyer instituted a ban on public meetings, but it was not widely publicized. In the city of Amritsar, Dyer and his troops open fired on Indians gathering in a courtyard, who were unaware of the ban. 400 Indians were killed, and 1,200 were wounded.
The govt. arrested Gandhi, his supporters, and other activists numerous times in response to their nonviolent protests.
1930 Salt March,
hundreds of policeman mercifully beat marchers with steel clubs as they displayed satyagraha by peacefully collecting salt in Dharamsala.
After the start of World War I, Great Britain instituted restrictive laws in India, in order to suppress nationalist and public opposition to it. These laws remained in place even after the war ended. One example was the law forbidding the possession of salt not bought through the British salt monopoly.
The British massacred thousands of Indian soldiers and burned villages in response to the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857. In this mutiny, Indians soldiers in the British army (sepoys) refused to load their weapons because of cartridges greased in cow and pig fat; animals sacred to Hindus and Muslims.
1857 Sepoy Rebellion
Philosophy of Gandhi
based on his upbringing and strong Hindu beliefs and morals.
: "soul force", or "truth force" It is a form of passive, nonviolent protest that Gandhi, and other members of the INC used to spark the change of unjust laws, and social conditions in India and South Africa.
; or self-rule in India.
believed in nonviolence, humility, and modesty, and implemented fasting as weapon to bring change and draw attention to plights of Indians.
Dyer Massacre: General Dyer put a ban on public meetings.
In the city of Amritsar, Dyer and his troops murdered about 400 Indians who were unaware of the ban.
The government arrested Gandhi and his supporters in response to their non-violent protests.
During the 1930 Salt March, policemen beat Indians with steel clubs and collected their salt
Later on, Indians were never accepted as equal to the British people. Negative connotations and hurtful words were developed towards Indians and were seen as passive, backwards, but extremely ambitious.
Positives and Negatives of Imperialism in India
While in India, the British built forms of mass transportation. Like railroads, waterways, etc. This gave India a head start into the world a head of them.
Ghandi was a great man who brought peace and hope to India. Without the forces of Imperialism, Gandhi would not have been able to make such an impact on the world.
Extreme Massacres occurred during the British Raj, Over thousands were brutally killed during this period. The British government forced themselves on to the Indian citizens violently.
Famine spread throughout India during the British Raj. The British put high taxes on everything. 25% of their income went to supporting the British army, on top of taxes on items like food. The Brits also thought it was more important to export India's goods instead of keeping them for the citizens. Therefore, by 1921, only 11% of India's cropped areas were irrigated.
India's Economy was the 2nd largest in the world before the British came in. During British rule, the economy plummeted to zero percent. That India did not grow for about 90 years. This still has an impact today. Although India now is in the leading economies of the world, there are still some extremely poor parts of India that are a result of Imperialism.
Sense of "Modernism"