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Stem Cell Research

A careful examination of the risks and benefits involved in stem cell research

Ryan O'Byrne

on 30 October 2012

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Transcript of Stem Cell Research

What is the price of a life? Stem Cell Research What is stem cell research? Applications A Historical Timeline Potential Misuses Questions Stem cells have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during
early life and growth. Why are stem cells being researched? Stem cell research is very new and has only been around for a short period of time. 1) What is stem cell research?
2) What is a benefit to stem cell research?
3) What ethical issue surrounds stem cell research?
4) What relevance does "My sisters keeper" have to stem cell research?
5) My did we specify healthy DNA in stem cells? Believed that stem cells can be used to treat diseases
such as Parkinson’s, Juvenile diabetes, Alzheimers HOW? HUMAN GENE THERAPY
with stem cells Wait!
Why did we put
the helpful DNA in stem cells? Helpful gene
becomes apart of... Carrier
of helpful gene
(sister's stem cells) another person's stem cells

via in vitro fertilization "My Sister's Keeper"
"Gattaca" inserted into Andy's
body Removed from sister
with no adverse effects A: Differentiation Stem cells capable of differentiating
(becoming different)
So... a diseased stem cell can produce
a healthy cell
whereas a diseased somatic cell will
produce diseased cells a carrier EXAMPLE CASE STUDY Stem Cell Research: A Growing Debate 2000 2012 2006 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Augusut 9th, 2001 President George W. Bush limits the research on embryonic stem cells to a
small number of then-existing cell lines. November 2nd, 2004 California voters approve a $3 billion bond to fund research over the next ten years. July 19th, 2006 President Bush rejects a bill that could have multiplied federal money for embryonic stem cell research. This is his first presidential veto. June 20th, 2007 President Bush vetoes another embryonic stem-cell bill as he urges scientists towards what he calls "ethically responsible research. January 2009 March 9th, 2009 July 10th, 2009 A U.S. biotech company plans to start the fist study of a treatment based on human embryonic stem cells. The project is aimed at spinal cord injuries. Geron Corp. gains permission from the federal government to inject 8 to 10 paraplegic patients (can use their arms but can't walk) with cells derived from embryonic cells. President Barack Obama abolishes the restraints that President Bush had made on federally funded stem cell research. He issues a new memo that encourages more open scientific discussion without political interference. Pope Benedict XVI has his first meeting with President Obama at the Vatican and stresses the Catholic church's opposition to abortion and embryonic stem cell research. August 23rd, 2010 Judge Royce Lamberth of the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C. issues a preliminary injunction against federal funding for research involving human embryonic stem cells. Apparently it violates a law passed in 1996 prohibiting federal money for research when an embryo is destroyed. In September, an appels court issues a temporary stay in the case, permitting funding to proceed while they consider the case. Human Cloning from Embryonic Stem Cells can result in brain tumours and various diseases from mutations.

Scientists may clone people for harmful and destructive purposes.
i.e. Unbeatable armies of clones.

Scientists could fertilize human eggs only to form fetuses and harvest stem cells for unethical means.
For example create a race of exact duplicates. A new and controversial strand of study which
seeks to unlock the seemingly miraculous powers many believe are hidden in these otherwise ordinary-looking cells Why stem cells? In other words, stem cells are capable of differentiating important word STEM CELL SOURCE The Game of Life Your stem cells Another person's stem cells GENE THERAPY Somatic Stem Cells
differentiate to produce
cells with helpful DNA Helpful gene
inserted into... vector (such as a virus)

via recombinant DNA a carrier EXAMPLE Carrier of helpful gene inserted into your body Carrier inserts the helpful DNA into your somatic stem cells LIMITATION
These stem cells are somatic not embryonic so they can NOT turn into any cell only certain groups of cells Now you need to alter the unhelpful gene in your stem cells... WHERE will this occur? Internal External Regular cells converted to stem cells New stem cells given helpful gene LIMITATIONS
Good luck. It hasn't worked yet... Through a VARIETY of methods Embryonic or Adult Embryonic Adult Embryonic stem cells
taken from a live embryo and grown in a dish Inserted into your body after preparation Genetic screening used to ensure embryo has helpful gene LIMITATIONS
At this point, the embryo is destroyed during stem cell harvesting Control Mechanisms - Set a precedent for what can and cannot be done with the technology of stem cell's application
For instance, people could attain a pardon from doctors: similar to the use of medicinal marijuana for terminal illnesses, and chronic pain.

- Nucleolar proteins have been shown to regulate cell proliferation and growth by controling ribosome biosynthesis. Citations SOURCES
Tsai, R., & McKay, R. (2002, October 4). A nucleolar mechanism controlling cell proliferation in stem cells and cancer cells. In Genes and development. Retrieved October 28, 2012.

Toronto, Ont.: Pearson Education Canada, 2002. Print.

Genetic Science Learning Center (2012, August 6) Stem Cell Quick Reference. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/quickref/

What is an Embryonic Stem Cell?. (n.d.). The Umbilical Cord, Stem Cells and Cord Blood - What Is An Umbilical Cord?. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://www.whatisanumbilicalcord.com/index.php/what-is-an-embryonic-stem-cell

Ross, V. (2012, Jan. - Feb.). Stem Cell Research Hits More Painful Setbacks. Discover, 1, 69.

Andres, T. (n.d.). Stem cell research: A father's story. Thriving — Boston Children's Hospital's pediatric health blog. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from http://childrenshospitalblog.org/stem-cell-research-a-fathers-story/ By: Ryan, Sydney, Will and Jessica LIMITATIONS
Virus could possibly make situation worse
Gene sometimes ends up in wrong cells By: Ryan O'Byrne, Sydney Hawthorne and
Will Campbell
Full transcript