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Violence against Women with Disabilities
Transcript of Violence against Women with Disabilities
2. a physical or mental handicap, especially one that prevents a person from living a full, normal life or from holding a gainful job.
3. anything that disables or puts one at a disadvantage: His mere six-foot height will be a disability in professional basketball.
4. the state or condition of being disabled.
5. legal incapacity; legal disqualification. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA): was the first major law to help the government and victim advocates work together to fight domestic violence, sexual assault, and other types of violence against women. It helped create new punishments for certain crimes and started programs to prevent violence and help victims. Over the years, the law has been expanded to provide more programs and services:
1.Violence prevention programs in communities
2.Protections for victims who are evicted from their homes 3.because of events related to domestic violence or stalking
4.Funding for victim assistance services like rape crisis centers and hotlines
5.Programs to meet the needs of immigrant women and women of different races or ethnicities
6.Programs and services for victims with disabilities
7.Legal aid for survivors of violence
8.Services for children and teens National Advisory Committee on Violence Against Women works to help promote the goals and vision of VAWA. The committee is a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 13 December 2006, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The Convention’s purpose is to “promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity.”
It also broadly defines persons with disabilities, saying they “include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” Telecommunications Act
Fair Housing Act
Air Carrier Access Act
Voting Accessibility For Elderly and Handicap Act
National Voter Registrations Act
Civil rights of Institutionalized Persons Act
Individual with Disabilities Education Act
Architectural Barriers Act
General Sources of Disability Rights Information Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA):
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, State and local government, public accommodations, commercial facilities, transportation and telecommunications. Also applies to US congress.
Protection by the ADA involves having a disability or having a relationship or association with an individual with a disability.
An individual with a disability is defined by the ADA as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more major life activities, a person who has a history or record of such an impairment, or a person who is perceived by others as having such an impairment. The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. ADA Titles Include
2:State and Local Government Activities
5: Telecommunications Relay Services Physical
Disability Orthopedic, neuromuscular, cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders. People with these disabilities often must rely upon assertive devices such as wheelchairs, crutches, canes, and artificial limbs to obtain mobility. The physical disability may either be congenital or a result of injury, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, amputation, heart disease, pulmonary disease or more. Some persons may have hidden (nonvisible) disabilities which include pulmonary disease, respiratory disorders, epilepsy and other limiting conditions. The original version of VAWA did not provide funding for victims with disabilities, the 2000 re-authorization authorized a grant program to provide education and technical assistance to service providers to better meet the needs of disabled victims of violence. Facts Women with disabilities had a 40% greater risk of violence than women without disabilities. Women with disabilities are at particular risk for
severe violence. Studies estimate that 80% of disabled women
have been sexually assaulted.
Women with disabilities are three times more likely
to be sexually assaulted than women without
disabilities. Approximately 48% of substantiated cases of
abuse involve elder adults who are not physically
able to care for themselves. Disabled children are more than twice as likely as
children without disabilities to be physically
abused, and almost twice as likely to be sexually
abused. Studies estimate that between 70% and 85%
of cases of abuse against disabled adults go
unreported Disabled victims of violence are heavily dependent
on their abusive primary caretakers and run the risk
of losing their caretaker if they report abuse. Only 35% of shelters surveyed have disability
awareness training for their staff and only 16% have
a dedicated staff person to deliver services to women
with disabilities. From the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence "What Is a Disability?" When most people think of the word "disability" they immediately picture someone in a wheelchair. But there are many different types of disability. According to the World Health Organization, a disability is…
"any restriction or lack (resulting from any impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being" • People with a disability may include:
• people who are blind or partially sighted
• people with learning or intellectual disabilities
• people who are deaf or hearing impaired
• people with a physical disability
• people with long term illnesses
• people with mental health or psychological
• people with an acquired brain injury Young, M. "Prevalence of Abuse of Women with Physical Disabilities*1." Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation This article documents the prevalence of abuse of women with physical disabilities compared to women without physical disabilities. A sample of 860 women, 439 with physical disabilities and 421 without physical disabilities, was compiled from women responding to a national sexuality survey. The women were asked if they bad ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. If they answered yes, they were asked to identify the perpetrator(s) of the abuse and when the abuse began and ended. Women with physical disabilities are more at risk for abuse by attendants or health care providers. They are also more likely to experience a longer duration of abuse than women without physical disabilities. Women with physical disabilities also were more likely to be abused by their attendants and by health care providers. Thirteen percent of women with physical disabilities described experiencing physical or sexual abuse in the past year. Sixty-two percent of both groups of women had experienced some type of abuse at some point in their lives. Of women who had experienced abuse, half of each group had experienced physical or sexual abuse. Implications. Practitioners should be aware of the increased risk of IPV among women with disabilities and its association with health status and access to health care. Practitioners, policy makers, and disability advocates should work together to remove barriers to accessing the health care system for women with disabilities, particularly those experiencing IPV. Women with disabilities are significantly more likely to have experienced IPV as compared with those without disabilities (33.2% and 21.2%, respectively). Women with disabilities who have experienced IPV are 35% less likely to report their health as good to excellent and are 58% more likely to report an unmet health care need owing to cost than their disabled counter- parts not experiencing IPV, when holding selected socio-demographic factors constant. Secondary analyses of data from 23,154 female respondents to the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 7 states administering the IPV module in 2006. Of these respondents, 6,309 had a disability. We performed c2 and logistic regression analyses to address the study objectives. 1) describes the prevalence of IPV among women with disabilities and compares IPV prevalence among women with and without disabilities, 2) examines if health status and health care access differ between women with disabilities experiencing IPV and those not experiencing IPV, and 3) examines the association between IPV, health status, and health care access among women with disabilities. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) against women with dis- abilities is more pervasive than against women without disabilities. However, little is known about the relationship between IPV, health status, and access to care among women with disabilities. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE, HEALTH STATUS, AND HEALTH CARE ACCESS AMONG WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES Intellectual
Disability formerly called mental retardation, is a term used when you are limited in your ability to:
-Learn, think, solve problems, and make sense of the world (called intellectual functioning)
-Live independently (called adaptive behavior) Intellectual functioning is usually measured with an IQ test. The average score is 100. If you score below 70 or 75, you are said to have an intellectual disability. Adaptive behavior is measured by looking at:
-Daily living skills, such as getting dressed, going to the bathroom, and feeding yourself
-Understanding what is said and being able to answer
-Social skills with peers, family members, adults, and others Medical Side to
Mental Disabilities Doctors have found many causes of intellectual disability. But the reason is not known about 40 percent to 50 percent of the time. Some causes are:
-Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome
-Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
-Problems during pregnancy or childbirth
-Childhood diseases like whooping cough or measles
-Being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury Rates Rates of violence against women and rates of violence against women with disabilities are similar but options that are available for women without disabilities are very rarely available for women with disabilities (Howland, Nosek, Young, 1997) This issue can be changed by enforcing the already existing accessibility and nondiscrimination laws (Howland, Nosek, Young, 1997) Women with disabilities face many problems when trying to receive help and getting out of violent relationships. They may not be able to drive, make plans for their kids, or are solely dependent on their partner for their needs. To accommodate this, shelters need to have training and be more accessible to women who suffer from a variety of disabilities. 1. provide adequate assessment which includes disability related issues for the survivor
2. should be able to recognize and appropriately respond to the needs of disabled women
3. Barrier-free services and providing 24 hour assistance including transportation
4. Provide legal protection from abusers Andrews and Veronen (1993) Four Requirements
for effective victim services - Should create laws that make psychological abuse or ignoring the right of a disabled woman’s body illegal
- Make sure that disabled women can retain their legal rights and freedom at all times
- Train shelters and other resources how to effectively communicate with women who have disabilities To help prevent violence against women with disabilities local governments and agencies: - Make sure there is accessible resources for women with a variety of different disabilities
- Investigate all causes of violence against women disabilities
- Provide sexual education for women and girls with disabilities
- Train women with disabilities to lead support groups for others who have dealt with violence
( International Network of Women with Disabilities, 2011) - Training within a curriculum to help address the many difficulties that women with disabilities face
- Have women with disabilities who have survived abuse train counselors as well as be a contact for victims of violence
- Include many other organizations and agencies to help strengthen the referral system as well as give support for women with disabilities who have gone through trauma
(Saddler) Agencies such as the Illinois Department of Human Services are revising their programs to help stop violence against women with disabilities by: Prevention not only starts with governmental change, but also with how individuals of a community help those with disabilities that are suffering from violence. The Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence has published a booklet for how to help a disabled friend, neighbor, or acquaintance that has more may be potentially suffering from abuse. - Focus on Safety → know that you can only help so much but being supportive is what matters most
- Know who to contact → Know local shelters and counseling services that help disabled women
- Know the signs → Be aware of the signs of abuse
- Know how to approach talking about abuse → Be supportive and say you are there to help; do not be overbearing
- Knowing what to say to a victim who wants to stay → once again, be supportive and listen. Also, be there if the victim needs help from isolation or needs to get away from their partner for some time
- Help a Victim who wants to leave → Know who to contact and always be there for moral support
(Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 2003) The End!