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Theory of Transactional Analysis

We will go over the basic history, populations that are appropriate, multicultural considerations and research articles.

Brandy Guillen

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of Theory of Transactional Analysis

By: Brandy Guillen and Patrick Renteria Transactional Analysis Basic History of Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis Eric Berne grew up in Montreal, Canada. He is the originator of Transactional Analysis and received his M.D. degree from McGill University in 1935 He completed his psychiatry training in the United States at Yale University and then entered the US Army as a psychiatrist. As Berne gained confidence, he went on to introduce his theory in 1957. After creating Transactional Analysis, Berne continued to develop and apply this new methodology. This led him to publish "Games People Play" and to found the International Transactional Analysis Association. He led an active life and continued his psychotherapist and writing duties up until his death in 1970. Berne left a remarkable legacy, including the creation of Transactional Analysis, Games People Play and 30+ other books and articles, and the founding of the International Transactional Analysis Association. Transactional Analysis suggest that people can learn to understand and enhance their transactions and communication patterns between people. Transactional. Analysis as a Theory words
body language
facial expressions Berne felt that a therapist could learn what the problem was by simply observing what was communicated in a transaction. Berne would frequently observe the patient in a group setting, noting all of the transactions that occurred between the patient and other individuals. Early life experiences shape personality development
People develop scripts that they follow throughout life that they receive from
Paternal messages
Fairy tales
literature Berne believed that people have the ability to determine their own destiny but few people acquire the necessary self-awareness to become autonomous. Complementary transactions: messages from the other person’s ego states that are appropriate and expected.
Crossed transactions: messages from the other person’s ego states that do not seem appropriate or expected.
Theory of Personality: sends an overt message from the other person’s ego states and a covert ulterior message from another ego state.
These messages can be verbal, nonverbal, via body language or by tone of voice. Three main concepts to Transactional Analysis that are directed at understanding and enhancing interpersonal relations. Interpersonal functioning in mental health is one of the first major theories to focus on interpersonal relationships. Understanding of personality dynamics Parent: represents the person’s morals and values and can be either critical or nurturing.
Critical attempts to find fault
Nurturing attempts to be supportive and promotes growth.
Adult: rational thinking, avoiding feelings and acts as mediator between child and parent ego states.
Child: uninhibited side characterized by emotions such as fear, happiness, and excitement. Ego States Usually played on an unconscious level
Results in bad feelings for both players The games people play Role of being OK or not OK indicates:
People who are happy with themselves and others
People who are suspicious of others. They could have a false sense of superiority or may be suffering from a mental disorder such as paranoia.
People who have low self concepts and feeling inadequate in relation to others.
People who have given up on themselves and life and may even be suicidal. The Four Life Positions Composed of parental messages
Example: “you are my angel”
Complementary messages from other sources
These roles are carried out through life
Example: (Cinderella) A child might feel self pity or being taken advantage of therefore feeling like they never had a chance to try and achieve anything in life. Life scripts Need for social interaction is related to the need for human recognition or strokes
Positive: communicate affection and appreciation
Unconditional Strokes
Interpersonal psychotherapy is based on the work of Harry Stack Sullivan and his interpersonal school of psychoanalysis  Other contributors:
John Bolby and his work on attachment
Adolph Meyer and individuals associated with the family therapy movement.
These environmental factors provided in the works have helped influence psychological functioning.  Interpersonal psychotherapy as short terms: The goal is to help clients become autonomous, self-aware, and spontaneous to allow for intimacy. Counseling Goals Making new decisions called redecisions regarding their behavior and approach to life.
Rewriting life scripts so they feel better about themselves and can relate to others
Ceasing the game playing that confuses communication and interpersonal function
Understanding their three ego states and how they can use that to function effectively
Avoiding communication that avoids crossed or ulterior motives
Learning how to obtain and give positive strokes Help the client by: TA Shares commonalities with interpersonal psychotherapy Sullivan proposed a different theory over Freud
 Social relations over the drive for sex and aggression as being responsible for mental health and well being. P < -- > P
A < -- > A
C < -- > C Three Basic Transactions Nine possibilities Child Adult Parent Problems are conceptualized from an interpersonal perspective
Familial interaction patterns are the best means of understanding oneself and others.
The counselor-client relationship can be used to work through relationship issues. We shift from ego state to another while engaged in transactions. Multicultural Considerations The list of multicultural considerations are quite small
Multicultural and cognitive–behavioral approaches both place importance on tailoring the therapy to the particular situation of the client.
more complex cultural influences need to be considered.
Several key features of cognitive–behavior therapy suggest that it might be particularly useful multiculturally. empowers clients to apply newly learned skills
Emphasizes the strengths of the individual
Focus on client empowerment.
Focus is on client's progress from the client's perspective Positive's Negative's Although ethnic minorities make up nearly 25% of the U.S. population, the percentage of ethnic minority psychologists in clinical practice is estimated at 5.1% or less
Places blame on the individual for problems
Lack of attention to the client's history
Study's are limited and few Freud Greatly Contributed to Berne's Theory: theories about personality had to work together to produce behaviors
Super Ego Interactions between these personality factions that manifest themselves as an individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Resources Eric Berne (2011) Encyclopedia of psychology. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org/links/People_and_History
Hays P. A. (1995) Multicultural applications of cognitive-behavior therapy. American psychology Association inc. (pp.309-312)
Nystaul M. S., (2011) Introduction to counseling: An art and science. New Jersey. Pearson
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